A nation’s weighted11 contribution to each conference paper is merely the number of authors geographically located in (or professionally affiliated with) that particular nation divided by the total number of authors of the paper. Thus, the weighted contributions for a given paper always sum to one. To compute the weighted percentage of papers contributed by a nation at a given conference, each nation’s weighted contributions to each conference paper are summed and then divided by the total number of papers given at that conference. The committee believes this measurement—as opposed to total papers or total authors—better reflects a nation’s authorship contribution.12 This measure also has the distinct advantage that it is public information13 and can be extended and reproduced by others.
Based on the technical challenges outlined in Chapter 1, the committee identified four research areas critical to addressing the computing performance challenge and the shift to multicore processors: semiconductor devices and circuits, computer architecture, programming systems, and applications. To compute the weighted percentage of papers contributed by a nation in each of these research areas, each nation’s weighted contributions to each conference paper are summed across all conferences assigned to a particular research area (discussed in Sections F.1.3–F.1.6) and then divided by the total number of papers given at those conferences.14 All but three of the conferences analyzed by the committee are sponsored or published by either (or both) the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) or the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), the two preeminent international technical societies in electrical engineering and computing. Based on committee members’ opinions and knowledge of the fields, the following sections identify a limited number of top conferences that make available new and interesting research germane to the study’s charge.
F.1.3 Semiconductor Devices and Circuits Conferences
As described in Chapter 1, the end of Dennard scaling has placed greater pressure on innovative devices and circuits to deliver more energy-efficient technologies for building microprocessors. To explore the research capabilities in these areas, the committee analyzed papers from three conferences—two in semiconductor and nanoscale devices and one in semiconductor circuits following the methodology described earlier in Section F.1.2. These conferences are described below.
ences and engineering is high and increasing at a higher rate than for U.S. citizens (available at http://www.nsf.gov/statistics/seind10/pdf/overview.pdf; last accessed on September 2, 2012). Additionally, a 2007 report by the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, Stay Rates of Foreign Doctorate Recipients from U.S. Universities (available at http://orise.orau.gov/files/sep/stayrates-foreign-doctorate-recipients-2007.pdf) found that two-thirds of foreign citizens who received science or engineering doctorates from U.S. universities in 2005 continued to live in the United States in 2007.
11In an unweighted analysis, two countries will receive 50 percent of a particular paper’s contribution to the conference, even if nine coauthors are located in one country and one coauthor is located in the other country.
12Examination of the country of origin of members of conference programming committees may be a useful future activity and provide additional insight for assessing a nation’s interest and capabilities in a particular technological field.
13While bibliometric databases, such as SciVerse Scopus and Web of Science, provide some conference publication and citation data, comprehensive and consistent data for each conference across the time periods analyzed in the report do not exist. For example, Scopus includes only limited or no coverage of ECOOP, Eurographics, OSDI, SC, SOSP, VLDB, and WWW, and large gaps in annual coverage exist for ISCA, MICRO, POPL, and PPoPP.
14This allows all amassed papers in each research area to be weighted equally. In contrast, by first calculating a nation’s weighted percentage of contributed papers for each conference (as reported in Appendix G) and then averaging across all conferences assigned to a particular research area, a bias is introduced that could skew the overall average in favor of those conferences with larger numbers of presented papers.