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I China's Medium- and Long-Term Plan Table I-1 Key Areas, Technologies, and Programs Identified in China's Medium- and Long-Term Plan for Development of Science and Technology Key Areas (11): Frontier Technologies (8): Agriculture Advanced energy Energy Advanced manufacturing Environment Aerospace and aeronautics Information technology industry and modern services Biotechnology Manufacturing Information National defense Laser Population and health New materials Public securities Ocean Transportation Urbanization and urban development Water and mineral resources Engineering Megaprojects* (16): Science Megaprojects (4): Advanced numeric-controlled machinery and basic manufacturing Development and technology reproductive biology Control and treatment of AIDS, hepatitis, and other major diseases Nanotechnology Core electronic components, high-end generic chips, and basic software Protein science Drug innovation and development Quantum research Extra- large-scale integrated circuit manufacturing and technique Genetically modified new-organism variety breeding High-definition Earth observation systems Large advanced nuclear reactors Large aircraft Large-scale oil and gas exploration Manned aerospace and Moon exploration New-generation broadband wireless mobile telecommunications Water pollution control and treatment * The MLP only marks 13 megaengineering programs. The rest are presumably military-related programs. Adapted from C. Cao et al., 2006, China's 15-year science and technology plan, Physics Today, p. 38. 99

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