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Prepublication Copy Uncorrected Proofs Perspectives on the Future of the Sociology of Aging Linda J. Waite, Editor Panel on New Directions in Social Demography, Social Epidemiology, and the Sociology of Aging Committee on Population Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education ADVANCE COPY NOT FOR PUBLIC RELEASE BEFORE Thursday, August 2, 2012 11:00 a.m. EST

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PREPUBLICATION COPY—UNCORRECTED PROOFS THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This study was supported by the National Institute on Aging’s Division of Behavioral and Social Research through Contract No. N01-OD-4-2139, Task Order numbers 225 and 259 between the National Academy of Sciences and the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Any opinions, findings, conclusion, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organization or agencies that provided support for the project. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data or International Standard Book Number 0-309-0XXXX-X Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; http://www.nap.edu. Copyright 2012 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America Suggested citation: National Research Council. (2012). Perspectives on the Future of the Sociology of Aging. L.J. Waite, Ed. Panel on New Directions in Social Demography, Social Epidemiology, and the Sociology of Aging. Committee on Population, Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. fm-ii

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PREPUBLICATION COPY—UNCORRECTED PROOFS The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org fm-iii

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PREPUBLICATION COPY—UNCORRECTED PROOFS fm-iv

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PREPUBLICATION COPY—UNCORRECTED PROOFS PANEL ON NEW DIRECTIONS IN SOCIAL DEMOGRAPHY, SOCIAL EPIDEMIOLOGY, AND THE SOCIOLOGY OF AGING LINDA J. WAITE (Chair), Department of Sociology, University of Chicago JOHN T. CACIOPPO, Department of Psychology, University of Chicago ANDREW J. CHERLIN, Department of Sociology, Johns Hopkins University NICHOLAS A. CHRISTAKIS, Department of Health Care Policy, Harvard Medical School MELISSA HARDY, The Gerontology Center, Pennsylvania State University MARK HAYWARD, Population Research Center, University of Texas, Austin V. JOSEPH HOTZ, Department of Economics, Duke University MICHAEL HOUT,* Department of Demography, University of California, Berkeley HILLARD S. KAPLAN, Department of Anthropology, University of New Mexico JAMES NAZROO, School of Social Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester, England TERESA SEEMAN, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles MICHAEL J. SHANAHAN, Department of Sociology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill KEIKO ONO, Program Officer (until July 2012) BARNEY COHEN, Study Director JACQUELINE R. SOVDE, Program Associate (until December 2011) DANIELLE JOHNSON, Senior Program Assistant * Resigned January 2011. fm-v

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PREPUBLICATION COPY—UNCORRECTED PROOFS COMMITTEE ON POPULATION 2012 LINDA J. WAITE (Chair), Department of Sociology, University of Chicago CHRISTINE BACHRACH, School of Behavioral and Social Sciences, University of Maryland JERE BEHRMAN, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania PETER J. DONALDSON, Population Council, New York, NY KATHLEEN HARRIS, Carolina Population Center, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill MARK HAYWARD, Population Research Center, University of Texas, Austin CHARLES HIRSCHMAN, Department of Sociology, University of Washington WOLFGANG LUTZ, World Population Program, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg, Austria ROBERT MARE, Department of Sociology, University of California, Los Angeles SARA MCLANAHAN, Center for Research on Child Wellbeing, Princeton University BARBARA B. TORREY, Independent Consultant, Washington, DC MAXINE WEINSTEIN, Center for Population and Health, Georgetown University DAVID WEIR, Survey Research Center, Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan JOHN R. WILMOTH, Department of Demography, University of California, Berkeley BARNEY COHEN, Director fm-vi

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PREPUBLICATION COPY—UNCORRECTED PROOFS Preface The Panel on New Directions in Social Demography, Social Epidemiology, and the Sociology of Aging was established in August 2010 under the auspices of the Committee on Population of the National Research Council. The panel’s task was to inform the National Institute on Aging’s Division of Social and Behavioral Research by preparing a report: “that will evaluate the recent contributions of social demography, social epidemiology, and sociology to the study of aging and seek to identify promising new research directions in these sub-fields.” To support the panel’s work, the panel organized a 2-day workshop in August 2011 in Washington DC, bringing together leading researchers from a variety of disciplines and professional orientations to summarize current research and to identify research priorities. Initially the plan called for the papers and the panel report to be published in a single volume, but it was decided to publish the papers and the panel report separately. Reviewed, revised, and edited versions of the papers from the workshop are presented in this volume. The panel’s final report is expected to be available later this year in a companion volume. The project was undertaken at the request of the Division of Behavioral and Social Research at the National Institute on Aging (NIA) and funding from NIA made this publication possible. Particular thanks go to Dr. Richard Suzman who was the intellectual catalyst for this project, and we are grateful to him and the NIA for their support. Several members of the staff of the National Academies made significant contributions to the report. The panel was established under the auspices of the Committee on Population, directed by Barney Cohen, who was instrumental in developing the study and providing guidance and support to the staff throughout the project. Thanks are due to Keiko Ono, who served as a project officer for the project until July 2012, Robert Pool for research and writing assistance, Jacqui Sovde for logistical support, Danielle Johnson for report preparation, Kirsten Sampson Snyder for help guiding the volume through review, Paula Whitacre for editing, and Yvonne Wise for managing the production process. The papers in this volume have been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the NRC Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making the published volume as sound as possible and to ensure that the volume meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We thank the following individuals for their review of this volume: John T. Cacioppo, Department of Psychology, University of Chicago; Andrew J. Cherlin, Department of Sociology, Johns Hopkins University; Brian M. D’Onofrio, Department of fm-vii

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PREPUBLICATION COPY—UNCORRECTED PROOFS Psychological and Brain Sciences, Indiana University; Fran Goldschneider, Department of Sociology, emeriti, Brown University and Professor, University of Maryland; Melissa Hardy, The Gerontology Center, Pennsylvania State University; Mark Hayward, Population Research Center, University of Texas, Austin; Theodore J. (Jack) Iwashyna, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan Health System; Hillard S. Kaplan, Department of Anthropology, University of New Mexico; Scott M. Lynch, Department of Sociology and Office of Population Research, Princeton University; James Nazroo, School of Social Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester, England; Jill Quadagno, Pepper Institute on Aging and Public Policy, Florida State University; Burton H. Singer, Emerging Pathogens Institute, University of Florida; and Mai Stafford, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London School of Life and Medical Sciences. Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the final volume before its release. The review of this volume was overseen by Barney Cohen, Director, Committee on Population. Appointed by the National Research Council, he was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content rests entirely with the authors. fm-viii

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PREPUBLICATION COPY—UNCORRECTED PROOFS Contents 1 Introduction and Overview Linda J. Waite 2 The New Realities of Aging: Social and Economic Contexts Jacqueline L. Angel and Richard A. Settersten, Jr. 3 Research Opportunities in the Demography of Aging Melissa Hardy and Vegard Skirbekk 4 Social Network, Neighborhood, and Institutions: An Integrated “Activity Space” Approach for Research on Aging Kathleen A. Cagney, Christopher R. Browning, Aubrey L. Jackson, and Brian Soller 5 Constrained Choices: The Shifting Institutional Contexts of Aging and the Life Course Phyllis Moen 6 Opportunities and Challenges in the Study of Biosocial Dynamics in Healthy Aging Tara L. Gruenewald 7 The Loyal Opposition: A Commentary on Gruenewald, “Opportunities and Challenges” Maxine Weinstein, Dana A Glei, and Noreen Goldman 8 Social Genomics and the Life Course: Opportunities and Challenges for Multilevel Population Research Michael J. Shanahan 9 The Challenge of Social Genomics: A Commentary on “Social Genomics and the Life-Course: Opportunities and Challenges for Multilevel Population Research” Jason Schnittker 10 Interventions to Promote Health and Prevent Disease: Perspectives on Clinical Trials Past, Present, and Future S. Leonard Syme and Abby C. King fm-ix