SUSTAINABILITY
CONSIDERATIONS

FOR PROCUREMENT TOOLS AND CAPABILITIES

SUMMARY OF A WORKSHOP

Dominic A. Brose and Lynette I. Millett, Rapporteurs

Committee on Fostering Sustainability Considerations into
Public and Private Sector Procurement Tools and Capabilities

Science and Technology for Sustainability Program
Policy and Global Affairs

Computer Science and Telecommunications Board
Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL

               OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
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SUSTAINABILITY CONSIDERATIONS FOR PROCUREMENT TOOLS AND CAPABILITIES SUMMARY OF A WORKSHOP Dominic A. Brose and Lynette I. Millett, Rapporteurs Committee on Fostering Sustainability Considerations into Public and Private Sector Procurement Tools and Capabilities Science and Technology for Sustainability Program Policy and Global Affairs Computer Science and Telecommunications Board Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences

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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Gov- erning Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engi- neering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This summary report and the workshop on which it was based were supported by Contract No. xx001-xx972 between the National Academy of Sciences and the U.S. General Services Administration. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or rec- ommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the agency that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-26259-0 International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-26259-3 Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; http://www.nap.edu. Copyright 2012 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal govern- ment on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the char- ter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstand- ing engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in pro- viding services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org

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COMMITTEE ON FOSTERING SUSTAINABILITY CONSIDERATIONS INTO PUBLIC AND PRIVATE SECTOR PROCUREMENT TOOLS AND CAPABILITIES Dara O’Rourke (Chair), Assistant Professor, University of California, Berkeley Peter Graf, Chief Sustainability Officer, SAP Patrick Mallet, Founder, Credibility Director, ISEAL Alliance H. Scott Matthews, Research Professor, Carnegie Mellon University Teresa Neal, Senior Purchasing Manager, Church & Dwight, Co., Inc. Staff Marina Moses, Director, Science and Technology for Sustainability Program Jon Eisenberg, Director, Computer Science and Telecommunications Board Dominic Brose, Program Officer, Science and Technology for Sustainability Program Lynette I. Millett, Associate Director, Computer Science and Telecommunications Board Jennifer Saunders, Program Officer, Science and Technology for Sustainability Program Dylan Richmond, Research Assistant, Science and Technology for Sustainability Program Pat Koshel, Senior Program Officer, Science and Technology for Sustainability Program Emi Kameyama, Senior Program Assistant, Science and Technology for Sustainability Program v

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Preface and Acknowledgments In December 2011 the National Research Council’s Science and Tech- nology for Sustainability Program, in collaboration with the Computer Science and Telecommunications Board, held a workshop organized by the Committee on Fostering Sustainability Considerations into Public and Private Sector Procurement Tools and Capabilities. As sustainable purchasing becomes increasingly important in both the public and pri- vate sectors, tools that can facilitate the sustainable acquisition of goods and services will play a critical role in meeting sustainability objectives. Participants at the workshop (listed in Appendix B) assessed the current landscape of sustainable procurement tools, identified opportunities and emerging needs for enhanced or new tools, identified potential barriers to progress (such as interoperability), and explored potential solutions. Participants also considered the procurement workforce and associated training required to realize the full benefits of these tools. Workshop par- ticipants included users of procurement tools (including federal, state, and local government and industry), experts in sustainable procurement, developers and users of various types of data, and individuals from com- panies that develop and provide procurement tools and related software. This document was prepared by the workshop rapporteurs as a fac- tual summary of what occurred at the workshop. The examples and topics discussed in this report are limited to what was discussed at the workshop. For instance, although there are many examples of sustainable purchasing efforts in private industry and the public sector, the report describes only those that were explicitly discussed at the workshop. The vii

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viii PREFACE AND ACKNOWLEDGMENTS statements made in this volume are those of the rapporteurs and do not necessarily represent positions of the workshop participants as a whole, the steering committee, the Science and Technology for Sustainability program, or the National Academies. This workshop summary is the result of substantial effort and collaboration among several organizations and individuals. We wish to extend a sincere thanks to each member of the steering committee for their contributions in scoping, developing, and carrying out this project. The project would not have been possible with- out financial support from the General Services Administration (GSA). This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with pro- cedures approved by the National Academies’ Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for quality and objectivity. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Leonardo Bonanni, Sourcemap; Scot Case, UL Environment; Wendy Gordon, Natural Resources Defense Council; and Verena Radulo- vic, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Although the reviewers listed above have provided many construc- tive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the content of the report, nor did they see the final draft before its release. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the rapporteurs and the institution. Dominic A. Brose Lynette I. Millett Rapporteurs

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Contents 1 OVERVIEW 1 2 GOVERNMENT EFFORTS 5 3 SOURCING AND MATERIALS 13 4 TOOLS AND TECHNOLOGy FOR SUSTAINABLE PURCHASING 21 5 WORKFORCE AND CULTURE 29 APPENDIxES A WORKSHOP AGENDA 33 B REGISTERED PARTICIPANTS LIST 39 C BIOGRAPHIES 43 D ExAMPLES OF FEDERAL AGENCy PROCUREMENT SySTEMS AND GREEN PURCHASING SySTEMS 55 E THE FEDERAL LIFE-CyCLE ASSESSMENT (LCA) DIGITAL COMMONS 61 ix

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