toxicity, and four broad “footprint” areas that focus on materials and waste, water use, energy use, and toxicity. The framework then connects attributes that purport to reduce certain types of life-cycle impacts. Mr. Siddiqui stressed that data will be needed in order to understand what sectors and product categories are driving the highest life-cycle impact types. The framework itself is a tool of sorts, he added, but it could also serve as a reference for developing standards. In addition, it could function as a foundation for a procurement tool to help clarify which attributes, ecolabels, or behaviors reduce impacts in meaningful ways. The framework could also provide a way to distinguish between criteria used in making decisions.