INTELLIGENT
HUMAN-MACHINE
COLLABORATION

Summary of a Workshop

Ethan N. Chiang and Patricia S. Wrightson
Rapporteurs

Board on Global Science and Technology

Policy and Global Affairs

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL

                         OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
Washington, D.C.
www.nap.edu



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INTELLIGENT HUMAN-MACHINE COLLABORATION Summary of a Workshop Ethan N. Chiang and Patricia S. Wrightson Rapporteurs Board on Global Science and Technology Policy and Global Affairs THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS Washington, D.C. www.nap.edu

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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special compe- tences and with regard for appropriate balance. This study was supported by Contract No. HHM402-10-D-0036 between the National Acade- my of Sciences and the Department of Defense. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or rec- ommendations expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-26264-4 International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-26264-X Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3314; http://www.nap.edu. Copyright 2012 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the re- sponsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the Nation- al Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org

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PLANNING COMMITTEE FOR THE WORKSHOP ON INTELLIGENT HUMAN-MACHINE COLLABORATION JEFFREY M. BRADSHAW (Chair), Florida Institute for Human and Machine Cognition DIANNE CHONG, The Boeing Company GAL KAMINKA, Bar-Ilan University GEERT-JAN KRUIJFF, Deutsches Forschungszentrum für Künstliche Intelligenz (DFKI) BRIAN WILLIAMS, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Principal Project Staff WILLIAM O. BERRY, Director ETHAN N. CHIANG, Program Officer PATRICIA S. WRIGHTSON, Associate Director v

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BOARD ON GLOBAL SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY RUTH DAVID, Analytic Services, Inc. (Chair) HAMIDEH AFSARMANESH, University of Amsterdam KATY BÖRNER, Indiana University Bloomington JEFFREY BRADSHAW, Florida Institute for Human and Machine Cognition DIANNE CHONG, The Boeing Company JARED COHON, Carnegie Mellon University ERIC HASELTINE, Haseltine Partners, LLC JOHN HENNESSEY, Stanford University NAN JOKERST, Duke University PETER KOLCHINSKY, RA Capital Management, LLC CHEN-CHING LIU, Washington State University KIN MUN LYE, Singapore’s Agency for Science, Technology and Research BERNARD MEYERSON, IBM Corporation KENNETH OYE, Massachusetts Institute of Technology NEELA PATEL, Abbott Laboratories DANIEL REED, Microsoft Corporation DAVID REJESKI, Woodrow Wilson Center Staff WILLIAM O. BERRY, Director ETHAN N. CHIANG, Program Officer NEERAJ GORKHALY, Research Associate PATRICIA S. WRIGHTSON, Associate Director vi

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Preface The Workshop on Intelligent Human-Machine Collaboration was orga- nized by a planning committee whose role was limited to identification of topics and speakers. During its deliberations, the planning committee focused on topics that addressed the challenges and opportunities presented by intelligent collabo- ration between humans and machines. In acknowledging that interpretations of “intelligent” and “collaboration” vary among different scientific communities, the planning committee sought workshop participants from a range of science and engineering disciplines relevant to human-machine collaboration. Through- out the workshop, participants were not asked to arrive at consensus on any issue but, to explore human-machine collaboration issues from diverse discipli- nary and cultural perspectives. As such, the selected workshop topics and subsequent discussions were not intended to provide comprehensive coverage of all research efforts in the field of human-computer or human-robot interaction, but to glean insights into the research challenges and opportunities presented by intelligent human- machine collaboration in dynamic and unstructured environments. The present summary was prepared by the rapporteurs as a factual summary of the presentations and discussions that took place at the workshop. Statements and opinions expressed are those of individual presenters and partic- ipants and are not necessarily endorsed or verified by the National Academies, and they should not be construed as reflecting any group consensus. vii

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Acknowledgment of Reviewers This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Academies’ Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for quality and objectivity. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this re- port: Henrik Christensen, Georgia Institute of Technology; Michael Goodrich, Brigham Young University; Paul Maglio, University of California; and Branko Sarh, The Boeing Company. Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the content of the report, nor did they see the final draft before its release. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the rapporteurs and the institution. viii

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Contents 1 Introduction 1 2 Scenario Exercises 3 3 Human-Machine Teamwork Panels 11 4 Common Challenges and Breakthroughs 17 5 Global and Transnational Issues 23 6 Revisiting the Scenarios 25 APPENDIXES A Workshop Participants 31 B Workshop Agenda 33 C Presentation Abstracts 39 ix

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