Human Performance Modification

Review of Worldwide Research with a View to the Future

Committee on Assessing Foreign Technology Development in
Human Performance Modification

Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences

Board on Behavioral, Cognitive, and Sensory Sciences
Division on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL

               OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
Washington, D.C.
www.nap.edu



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Human Performance Modification Review of Worldwide Research with a View to the Future Committee on Assessing Foreign Technology Development in Human Performance Modification Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences Board on Behavioral, Cognitive, and Sensory Sciences Division on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education

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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This is a report of work supported by Contract HHM402-10-D-0036DO #6 between the Defense Intelligence Agency and the National Academy of Sciences. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number 13: 978-0-309-26269-9 International Standard Book Number 10: 0-309-26269-0 Limited copies are available from Additional copies are available from Division on Engineering and Physical The National Academies Press Sciences 500 Fifth Street, NW National Research Council Keck 360 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 Washington, DC 20001 (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (202) 334-3118 Internet, http://www.nap.edu Copyright 2012 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America ii

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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org

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COMMITTEE ON ASSESSING FOREIGN TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT IN HUMAN PERFORMANCE MODIFICATION HENDRICK W. RUCK, Chair, Human Performance Consulting Group, LLC JULIE J.C.H. RYAN, Vice Chair, George Washington University ALICE M. AGOGINO (NAE), University of California, Berkeley DEBRA AUGUSTE, Harvard University STEVEN G. BOXER (NAS), Stanford University CHRISTOPER C. GREEN, Wayne State University HENDRIK F. HAMANN, IBM Research JAMES C. MILLER, Miller Ergonomics JOANNA MIRECKI MILLUNCHICK, University of Michigan DONALD NORMAN (NAE), Nielsen Norman Group LAURIE ZOLOTH, Northwestern University Staff DANIEL E.J. TALMAGE, JR., Study Director CHERIE CHAUVIN, Senior Program Officer GREGORY EYRING, Senior Program Officer SARAH CAPOTE, Research Associate ZEIDA PATMON, Program Associate iv

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Preface In fall 2011, the U.S. Army asked the National Research Council to convene a committee to explore the development of capabilities in human performance modification, to review the state of research and identify key players in promising areas of research, and to focus on potential developments that are likely in the next 15 to 25 years. The Committee on Assessing Foreign Technology Development in Human Performance Modification (see Appendix A) performed a detailed review of available reference material and received briefings from experts in the field, including international researchers (see Appendix B). Preliminary research was conducted by staff from September 2011 to January 2012. The first committee meeting was held on January 19- 20, 2012, and the last of three meetings was on March 29-30, 2012 (see Appendix B). The committee compiled draft reports between the last meeting and April 2012, and the report was completed during fall 2012. This report describes fields of current research that the committee found to be most active. We express our appreciation to the members of the committee for their diligence and dedication in contributing to the study and to the preparation of this report, to the U.S. Army for its sponsorship of the study, and to National Research Council staff members Terry Jaggers, Daniel Talmage, Cherie Chauvin, Sarah Capote, Greg Eyring, and Zeida Patmon for their efforts on behalf of the study. Hendrick W. Ruck, Chair Julie J.C.H. Ryan, Vice Chair Committee on Assessing Foreign Technology Development in Human Performance Modification v

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Acknowledgment of Reviewers This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council’s (NRC’s) Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Andrew Brown, NAE, Delphi Corporation, Don Chaffin, NAE, University of Michigan, Stephen W. Drew, NAE, Drew Solutions, Mica Endsley, SA Technologies, Gary Grest, NAE, Sandia National Laboratories, Douglas Harris, Anacapa Sciences, Ian McCulloh, U.S. Army, Martin Moore-Ede, Circadian, Jonathan Moreno, IOM, University of Pennsylvania Health System, and Michael Posner, NAS/IOM, University of Oregon. Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Judith L. Swain (IOM), National University of Singapore, who was appointed by the NRC to make certain that an independent review of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution. vi

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Contents SUMMARY 1 1 INTRODUCTION 7 Background and Rationale for This Study, 7 Statement of Task and Scope, 7 Committee Approach, 8 Report Organization, 9 2 HUMAN COGNITIVE MODIFICATION AS A COMPUTATIONAL PROBLEM 10 Computation for Human Performance Modification, 10 Big Data, 10 Conventional Computers and Current Trends, 12 Innovations in Computers for Cognitive Information Processing, 14 Worldwide Research in Cognitive Computing, 16 Summary Comments, 17 Computation for Cognitive Enhancement, 17 Cognitive Artifacts, 17 Augmented Reality, 18 Socially Distributed Augmented Reality, 19 Enhanced Cognitive Performance Through Better Human-Centered Design, 20 Thoughts on the Concept of Radical Innovation in Cognitive Enhancement, 21 Cognitive Degradation, 21 Foreign Research in Cognitive Modification, 22 3 HUMAN PERFORMANCE MODIFICATION AS A BIOLOGICAL PROBLEM 23 Tissue Engineering, 23 Worldwide Research, 24 Fatigue: Judgment and Decision Making, 24 Worldwide Research, 27 4 HUMAN PERFORMANCE MODIFICATION AS A FUNCTION OF BRAIN-COMPUTER INTERFACES 28 Brain-Computer Interfaces, 28 Detection of Electric Signals, 28 Functional Detection, 29 Worldwide Research, 30 vii

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Other Kinds of Interfaces, 30 Nanotechnology for Human Performance Modification, 30 Worldwide Research, 31 BIBLIOGRAPHY 32 APPENDIXES A Biographical Sketches of Committee Members 45 B Meetings and Speakers 49 C Acronyms and Abbreviations 52 D Contextual Issues 53 viii