microphone coupled with a highly directional loudspeaker to record and delay a voice and then beam it back to the speaking human. It is conceivable that this technique would work over considerable distances.

The committee did not find other examples of degradation, but it appears to be a potentially valuable subject that is so far largely unexplored. Obvious forms of degradation, including the distribution of false information (such as spoofing, counterfeiting, false trails, and false leaks) are well known and are standard in novels and movies. Other disruptions interfere with the communication channel, as in the example above—it is a form of “denial of service.” This kind of attack is also well known. Nonetheless, the committee found little evidence of the use of technologies of cognitive enhancement for performance degradation.

Foreign Research in Cognitive Modification

The committee was unable to discover topics related to cognitive enhancement that were being pursued exclusively outside the United States. As in the United States, most such work is either being done in research laboratories and published openly or is being introduced into commercial products. Unpublished or classified work that cannot be discovered through normal channels might be occurring within the United States; and discovering such foreign work is even more difficult.

One of the committee’s advisors on technologies for augmented cognition reported that funding for applications was difficult to get in the United States but that other countries had increased their support:

…2005 …was the year that Europe and Asia really started betting on ubicomp/wearables (ubiquitous computing and wearables). We are seeing the results now—Europe has been pulling ahead of U.S. steadily in wearables/ubicomp research, and South Korea is starting to surpass U.S. in electronic textiles research, in my opinion. Much of my wearables research and funding is with the EU and South Korea. My colleagues in China seem to be suddenly in demand for projects they can't talk about with me or their European friends (military?). Though China is behind U.S. in research, Foxconn has an internal startup on Head Up Displays (HUDs)—they bought out much of the Myvu/MicroOptical management and patents after they closed. (Thad Starner, personnel communication, March 2012)



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