mittee’s full recommendations on musculoskeletal fitness tests for use in national youth fitness surveys and in schools and other educational settings are presented in Chapters 8 and 9, respectively.

Moderate to strong tracking of selected measures of muscle strength and power both during adolescence (Maia et al., 2001; Malina, 1996; Pate et al., 1999) and from adolescence into adulthood (Beunen et al., 1992; Malina, 1996; Mikkelsson et al., 2006; Twisk et al., 2000) suggests that measures of musculoskeletal fitness in youth may prove to be useful predictors of future adult health. Tracking relationships appear to be weaker during the preadolescent years and more stable for lower- versus upper-body strength/power measures (Malina et al., 2004). Tracking variability in youth may be explained by age-related differences in the development of inter- and intramuscular coordination and differing levels of experience with specific fitness tests. Further, there is increasing evidence of moderate tracking of biologic health markers, especially for coronary heart disease, from childhood/adolescence into adulthood that in the future may be shown to be related to musculoskeletal fitness in youth (Bao et al., 1995; Froberg and Andersen, 2005; Malina et al., 2004; Twisk et al., 1995, 1997). Whether changes in muscle strength, endurance, and power during youth are predictive of adult health outcomes in later life, however, remains to be determined.

REFERENCES

AAHPERD (American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance). 1984. Health related physical fitness test: Technical manual. Reston, VA: AAHPERD.

American Academy of Pediatrics, and Council on Sports Medicine and Fitness. 2008. Strength training by children and adolescents. Pediatrics 121(4):835-840.

Ashe, M. C., T. Y. L. Liu-Ambrose, D. M. L. Cooper, K. M. Khan, and H. A. McKay. 2008. Muscle power is related to tibial bone strength in older women. Osteoporosis International 19(12):1725-1732.

Bao, W., S. A. Threefoot, S. R. Srinivasan, and G. S. Berenson. 1995. Essential hypertension predicted by tracking of elevated blood pressure from childhood to adulthood: The Bogalusa Heart Study. American Journal of Hypertension 8(7):657-665.

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Benefice, E., T. Fouere, and R. M. Malina. 1999. Early nutritional history and motor performance of Senegalese children, 4-6 years of age. Annals of Human Biology 26(5):443-455.

Benson, A. C., M. E. Torode, and M. A. Fiatarone Singh. 2008. The effect of high-intensity progressive resistance training on adiposity in children: A randomized controlled trial. International Journal of Obesity 32(6):1016-1027.

Beunen, G., J. Lefevre, A. L. Claessens, R. Lysens, H. Maes, R. Renson, J. Simons, B. Vanden Eynde, B. Vanreusel, and C. Van den Bossche. 1992. Age-specific correlation analysis of longitudinal physical fitness levels in men. European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology 64(6):538-545.

Blimkie, C. J. R. 1993. Benefits and risks of resistance training in children. In Intensive participation in children’s sports, edited by B. R. Cahill and A. J. Pearl. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics Publishers. Pp. 133-165.



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