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Measuring Fitness in Youth

Fitness testing for youth emerged from the field of physical education, which has a long-standing history of fitness testing. Over the years, social and political circumstances have dictated the emphasis, progress, and use of fitness testing in the United States. In particular, an early emphasis on performance outcomes—particularly military performance—has given way to a focus on health outcomes as a result of concerns about the health of the nation’s youth. While the components of fitness have remained virtually the same, moreover, the tests and protocols used to measure it have evolved as more data have accumulated on their validity and reliability and their relationship to desired outcomes. Although efforts have been ongoing to standardize and validate the constructs for fitness testing, the range of fitness test batteries currently in use, as detailed in this chapter, reveals that consensus on these issues remains elusive. The research needs identified in Chapter 10 therefore include a comprehensive reevaluation of the past and current approaches to fitness testing in youth.

This chapter begins with a brief early history of physical fitness testing. It then describes more recent historical events related specifically to measuring physical fitness among U.S. youth.1 The final section includes a table that lists the various batteries of fitness tests currently in use worldwide.

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1For more information about the history of youth fitness testing in the United States, the reader is referred to Corbin (2012), Mood et al. (2007), Morrow (2005), Morrow et al. (2009), and Plowman et al. (2006).



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2 Measuring Fitness in Youth F itness testing for youth emerged from the field of physical education, which has a long-standing history of fitness testing. Over the years, social and political circumstances have dictated the emphasis, prog- ress, and use of fitness testing in the United States. In particular, an early emphasis on performance outcomes--particularly military performance-- has given way to a focus on health outcomes as a result of concerns about the health of the nation's youth. While the components of fitness have remained virtually the same, moreover, the tests and protocols used to mea- sure it have evolved as more data have accumulated on their validity and reliability and their relationship to desired outcomes. Although efforts have been ongoing to standardize and validate the constructs for fitness testing, the range of fitness test batteries currently in use, as detailed in this chapter, reveals that consensus on these issues remains elusive. The research needs identified in Chapter 10 therefore include a comprehensive reevaluation of the past and current approaches to fitness testing in youth. This chapter begins with a brief early history of physical fitness testing. It then describes more recent historical events related specifically to measur- ing physical fitness among U.S. youth.1 The final section includes a table that lists the various batteries of fitness tests currently in use worldwide. 1For more information about the history of youth fitness testing in the United States, the reader is referred to Corbin (2012), Mood et al. (2007), Morrow (2005), Morrow et al. (2009), and Plowman et al. (2006). 23

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24 FITNESS MEASURES AND HEALTH OUTCOMES IN YOUTH EARLY HISTORY OF PHYSICAL FITNESS TESTING2 Although organized youth fitness testing did not begin until the mid 20th century, the foundation of national youth fitness testing began to be established a century earlier. Park (1989) notes that early leaders in physi- cal education, many of whom were medical doctors and YMCA leaders, focused the outcomes of instruction on anthropometric measurements. During the last half of the 19th century, national physical education orga- nizations emerged (e.g., the American Association for the Advancement of Physical Education [AAAPE]), and the leaders who founded the organiza- tions continued with a measurement focus (e.g., strength and lung capac- ity assessments). Dudley Sargent, one of the pioneers of physical testing, developed the vertical jump test that is still used today and is commonly referred to as the "Sargent jump." It is generally believed that Sargent thought of the vertical jump as a general measure of fitness and health. He published the books Health, Strength and Power (Sargent, 1904) and Universal Test for Strength, Speed and Endurance of the Human Body (Sargent, 1902). By the late 1800s and early 1900s, the purpose of fitness testing had expanded beyond anthropometric measurements with the introduction of the concept of "physical efficiency," characterized as efficient functioning of body systems, such as the circulatory, respiratory, muscular, and ner- vous systems (Park, 1989). Fitness testing evolved from a focus on athletic performance to a focus on health in the early 1900s as researchers such as McCurdy and McKenzie studied blood pressure fatigue (McCurdy, 1901; McKenzie, 1913), and Storey studied pulse rate (Storey, 1903). Prior to World War I, tests of "motor ability" that included tests of jumping, climb- ing, lifting, vaulting, and running were popular. One prominent test, the Playground Association of America Athletic Badge Test, was introduced for boys in 1913 and girls in 1916. During and immediately after World War I, the focus on physical education and physical training in schools increased, with a shift toward fitness for war. Many physical educators led physical training programs for the military during the war era. The theme that many Americans were unfit was popular in the media. After World War I, the Public Health Service and many different orga- nizations focused attention on fitness tests and programs because of their potential link to preparedness for war. The Public Health Service booklet Keeping Fit emphasized many personal factors (e.g., willpower, courage, self-control) in addition to those related to health (USPHS, 1918). Dur- ing the early 1900s, there was considerable debate about the importance 2The information included in this section is based on Park (1989).

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MEASURING FITNESS IN YOUTH 25 of "efficiency" testing and what should be included in physical efficiency tests. Various test batteries were developed, including the Physical Fitness Index (PFI), developed by Rogers (several strength items) (Rogers, 1925), and a test of athletic power developed by McCloy (general motor ability and strength) (McCloy, 1934, 1941). Both Rogers and McCloy conducted research that provided a basis for the items selected for their tests. Other tests of the era were often developed by groups of professionals based on group consensus. "Financial austerities" due to the Great Depression resulted in decreases in physical education and a reduced emphasis on physical fitness testing (Park, 1989). The interest in general physical fitness testing in schools that was common after World War I diminished, while interest in laboratory- based measures of fitness grew. As was the case prior to, during, and immediately after World War I, World War II produced much military, governmental, and societal interest in fitness programs and fitness testing. While there was much fanfare and many proposals for action were made, most efforts with youth relied on volunteer leaders and local funding. A 1941 supplement to the Research Quarterly focused on physical fitness and fitness testing (Carpenter, 1941; Cureton and Larson, 1941; Larson, 1941; McCloy, 1941). Park (1989) indicates that the U.S. Department of Education, in cooperation with the Army, Navy, and Public Health Service, prepared a fitness booklet (Physi- cal Fitness through Physical Education for the Victory Corps) in 1942. In addition, at the request of the U.S. Department of Education, the American Association for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation's (AAHPER's) section on women's athletics prepared a fitness test battery for high school girls. Fitness manuals were prepared for college students as well, and the armed services developed fitness programs of their own during the war. Also during the war, many conferences and committees focused on youth fitness. Park (1989, p. 11) notes that the "predominant interpretation given to the term physical fitness during World War II was the ability to sustain long, hard, muscular effort." The joint involvement of health, education, physical education, and military groups underscores the mixed purposes of physical fitness testing. Health was a concern, but so were general fitness and fitness for war. NATIONAL YOUTH FITNESS TESTING: 1950 TO 1980 The physical fitness focus that was prominent during World War II gave way to a more generalized emphasis for youth during the postwar years. The popularity of college and professional sports led physical education programs to focus on athletic capabilities. The Korean War in the early

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26 FITNESS MEASURES AND HEALTH OUTCOMES IN YOUTH TABLE 2-1 Key Historical Events/Publications in Youth Fitness Testing in the United States, 1950-1979 Year Historical Event/Publication 1954 Publication of the results of minimum muscular fitness and flexibility tests in schoolchildren (Kraus and Hirschland, 1953, 1954) 1956 By Executive Order #10673, President Eisenhower creates the President's Council on Youth Fitness (July 16) 1957-1958 American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance (AAHPERD) holds meetings on youth fitness 1958 American Association for Health, Physical Education and Recreation (AAHPER) Youth Fitness Test published (AAHPER, 1958) 1965 Update of AAHPER Youth Fitness Test published (AAHPER, 1965) 1966 President's Council on Physical Fitness creates the Presidential Physical Fitness Awards Program 1973 Texas Physical Fitness-Motor Ability Test released by the Governor's Commission on Physical Fitness (Coleman and Jackson, 1973) 1976 Update of AAHPERD Youth Fitness Test published (AAHPERD, 1976) SOURCE: Adapted from Morrow et al., 2009. 1950s did bring some focus back to physical fitness, but it was research by Kraus and Hirschland (1953, 1954) that provided the impetus for the national youth physical fitness testing movement. Their reports indicated that children in the United States passed fewer fitness test items than children from European countries. For their research, Kraus and Hirschland used the Kraus-Weber test, a battery of six items testing minimum muscular fitness and flexibility originally developed as a measure of potential for back pain. Although this test was rudimentary by current standards, the results gained traction after being reported in the mainstream media (see for example, the article in Sports Illustrated titled "The Report That Shocked the President" [Boyle, 1955]). Published during the Cold War era, the results implying less fitness in American than in European youth raised major concern about the nation's military preparedness. Consequently, Kraus was granted an audience with then President Eisenhower to discuss the study results. After that meeting, Eisenhower established a cabinet-level President's Council on Youth Fitness (now the President's Council on Fitness, Sports, and Nutrition [PCFSN]). A chronology of these and other key events/publications relating to youth fitness, 1950 to 1979, is presented in Table 2-1.

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MEASURING FITNESS IN YOUTH 27 TABLE 2-2 Changes in the Youth Fitness Test, 1958-1976 1958 1965 1976 Shuttle run 50-yard dash 500-yard run/walk Pull-up (boys) Modified pull-up (girls) Flexed arm hang (girls) Softball throw Long jump Sit-up (straight-leg) Sit-up (flexed-leg, timed, arms behind head) SOURCE: Adapted from Corbin and Pangrazi, 1992. In 1957, the Council and a citizen's advisory group called on professional groups to improve efforts to promote youth fitness. Many different organiza- tions, including the newly created American College of Sports Medicine and the American Medical Association, urged action. The AAHPER Research Council appointed a committee, chaired by Anna Espenschade of the Uni- versity of California, that created the first youth physical fitness test battery (the Youth Fitness Test) for use in a large-scale national survey. The test included the items shown in Table 2-2. These test items included measures of strength and muscular endurance common in earlier fitness test batteries and a 600-yard run/walk believed at the time to be a measure of cardiovas- cular fitness; these measures often were considered to be health related. Also included, however, were items more related to physical education objectives and skill-related fitness, such as the softball throw and the 50-yard dash, reflecting in part societal concerns at the time regarding the athletic capa- bilities and military preparedness of youth (Morrow et al., 2009). The test items were administered in a national survey conducted by the University of Michigan (led by Paul Hunsicker), with funding from the U.S. Depart- ment of Education (AAHPER, 1958). As was the case with other testing in schools at the time (e.g., achievement tests), normative standards were developed and reported in the first test manual (AAHPER, 1958). AAHPER also designed awards (certificates and emblems) for students who met those standards (Park, 1989). During the late 1950s and early 1960s, the fitness movement contin- ued. President Kennedy advocated for youth physical fitness in his article "The Soft American," published in Sports Illustrated (Kennedy, 1960). He

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28 FITNESS MEASURES AND HEALTH OUTCOMES IN YOUTH convened a conference on youth fitness, and the President's Council sub- sequently prepared a booklet on the subject, commonly referred to as the "Blue Book," that included information about the seven-item Youth Fit- ness Test of 1958. This booklet was intended to emphasize the importance of having an active lifestyle and its role in establishing fitness and health. Kennedy wrote a second article in Sports Illustrated in 1962, entitled "The Vigor We Need" (Kennedy, 1962). By executive order, the name of the Council was changed to the President's Council on Physical Fitness (PCPF) to reflect interest in promoting fitness among people of all ages and ability levels. In 1965, a second survey was conducted using a modified version of the Youth Fitness Test (AAHPER, 1965). Changes in the test items used for the 1965 survey included the addition of a flexed arm hang test to replace the modified pull-up for girls (see Table 2-2). This change was made primarily to produce more reliable test scores. In 1966, the President's Council established the Presidential Physical Fitness Award Program, jointly administered by AAHPER and the PCPF, to acknowledge youth who met or exceeded the 85th percentile on all seven test items. The third national survey using the Youth Fitness Test was published in 1976 (AAHPERD, 1976). As noted in Table 2-2, the softball throw was deleted, the sit-up was modified, and distance runs longer than 600 yards were included as options. The softball throw was deleted because it was considered to be a skill rather than a fitness-related item. The modification of sit-up testing was based on the idea that the bent-knee approach was less stressful on the back than the straight-leg approach. Finally, research indicating greater validity for longer runs and their association with aero- bic capacity led to the inclusion of longer runs as optional items (Morrow et al., 2009). During the 1960s and 1970s, evidence linking fitness and physical activity to good health accumulated. Correspondingly, interest grew in the development of youth fitness test batteries focused primarily on health- related physical fitness. The Texas Physical Fitness Motor Ability Test (Coleman and Jackson, 1973) included health-based test items, and evi- dence was included to support the test items selected. NATIONAL YOUTH FITNESS TESTING: 1980 TO 1990 In the 1970s, several committees were appointed by the American Alli- ance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance (AAHPERD) to study the Youth Fitness Test. Recommendations of these committees led to the development of a Health-Related Physical Fitness Test by AAHPERD in 1980. AAHPERD continued to maintain both the health-related test and the Youth Fitness Test. The Youth Fitness Test included an awards program

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MEASURING FITNESS IN YOUTH 29 administered by the renamed President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports (PCPFS) and a newly created fitness report card created and admin- istered by the Cooper Institute in Dallas, Texas. Table 2-3 lists these and other key events related to national youth fitness testing during 1980 to 1990. In 1984, AAHPERD published a technical manual for the Health- Related Physical Fitness Test documenting the theoretical basis for the adopted test items and for replacements for the normative standards of the Youth Fitness Test (Morrow et al., 2009). Test items targeting cardiorespi- ratory fitness, musculoskeletal fitness, and body composition were included in the battery as fitness components related to health. Also in 1984, an ad hoc committee of AAHPERD recommended that the Health-Related Physical Fitness Test become the primary AAHPERD test and that the Youth Fitness Test be made a secondary test. However, that recommenda- tion was not implemented, and in 1985 another AAHPERD committee was appointed (the Manual Task Force) to merge the two AAHPERD tests (see below). During this period, several national surveys were completed. In 1986, the School Population Fitness Survey was conducted by the then PCPFS (now PCFSN) using a revised version of the Youth Fitness Test. The revised battery is described later in this chapter. Of note are the removal of the 50-yard dash and the long jump and the addition of a V-sit test of flexibility. Two additional youth fitness surveys were conducted in the mid-1980s. The National Children and Youth Fitness Study I, results of which were published in 1985 by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (McGinnis, 1985), focused on measuring the fitness of secondary school youth using health-related fitness test items developed specifically for the study. In 1986, the National Children and Youth Fitness Study II (Ross and Pate, 1987) was conducted to assess the fitness of elementary school youth using the health-related items from the National Children and Youth Fitness Study I. AAHPERD's Manual Task Force "was charged with developing a single AAHPERD fitness test battery, establishing criterion-referenced standards, examining existing awards schemes, and writing the appropriate manual" (Plowman et al., 2006, p. S8). Before the task force could produce a docu- ment, however, the PCPFS initiated its fitness testing and awards program in 1986, based primarily on the 1985 version of the Youth Fitness Test and existing award schemes. Even after much discussion among relevant organi- zations (PCPFS, AAHPERD, Cooper Institute) regarding the establishment of a unified national fitness testing battery, the PCPFS continued with its test and awards program, named the President's Challenge Program (1987), while the Cooper Institute introduced a health-related fitness test and

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30 FITNESS MEASURES AND HEALTH OUTCOMES IN YOUTH TABLE 2-3 Key Historical Events/Publications in Youth Fitness Testing in the United States, 1980-1990 Year Historical Event/Publication 1980 American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance (AAHPERD) Health-Related Physical Fitness Test Manual released (AAHPERD, 1980) 1982 Fitnessgram pilot conducted in 30 Tulsa schools 1983 A New Definition of Youth Fitness published (Pate, 1983) 1983 Health-Related Physical Fitness Test user survey piloted (Safrit and Wood, 1983) 1984 AAHPERD's Technical Manual: Health-Related Physical Fitness Test released (AAHPERD, 1984) 1985 National Children and Youth Fitness Study I results published (McGinnis, 1985) 1985 AAHPERD's Norms for College Students: Health Related Physical Fitness Test published (Pate, 1985) 1986 Safrit and Wood (1986) report on tristate usage of the AAHPERD Health- Related Physical Fitness Test published, indicating many issues with adoption of the new test 1986 National School Population Fitness Survey results released (PCPFS, 1986) 1986 President's Challenge Program developed (PCPFS, 1987) 1986 Fit Youth Today (American Health Fitness Foundation, 1986) published; original test development begun under the Texas Governor's Commission on Physical Fitness 1987 National Children and Youth Fitness Study II results published (Ross and Pate, 1987) 1987 National Fitnessgram originally developed (Plowman et al., 2006) 1988 Youth Fitness Testing: Validation, Planning, and Politics published (Franks et al., 1988) 1988 AAHPERD's health-related fitness education program "Physical Best" published (McSwegin, 1989) 1988 Chrysler Amateur Athletic Union (AAU) Fitness Test (Chrysler Corporation and Amateur Athletic Union of the United States, 1992) initially distributed 1989 YMCA Youth Fitness Test Manual published (Franks, 1989) 1989 The Case for Large-Scale Physical Fitness Testing in American Youth published (Pate, 1989) 1989 Physical Fitness Testing of Children: A 30-Year History of Misguided Efforts? published (Seefeldt and Vogel, 1989) SOURCE: Adapted from Morrow et al., 2009.

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MEASURING FITNESS IN YOUTH 31 reporting program called Fitnessgram (1988), and AAHPERD developed a health-based fitness testing and reporting program called Physical Best (1988). Table 2-4 shows the evolution of test items from the PCPFS/PCFSN and Fitnessgram batteries, including current and previously included items; the Physical Best battery is no longer in use. A comprehensive discussion of the events leading to the development of these test batteries is provided in Plowman et al. (2006). Issues that led these groups to devise different tests included the use of health versus motor fitness items, the use of health criteria versus normative standards, the inclusion of a body composition item, and the inclusion of award schemes. In 1988, the Chrysler Amateur Athletic Union (AAU) Fitness Test was introduced. The YMCA Youth Fitness Test Manual was published the fol- lowing year (Franks, 1989). YOUTH FITNESS TESTING SINCE 1990 Despite the above efforts to develop a unified battery of fitness tests and the implementation of new tests, no new large-scale national fitness surveys have been conducted since the 1980s. In 1994, the Cooper Institute published The Prudential Fitnessgram Technical Reference Manual (Mor- row et al., 1994), which has been updated and published online (http:// www.cooperinstitute.org/reference-guide). Fitnessgram uses health-based criterion references. Key events in youth fitness testing since 1990 are listed in Table 2-5. In 1994, AAHPERD adopted Fitnessgram as its national fitness test. Physical Best, no longer a fitness test battery, became the AAHPERD fit- ness education program rather than a testing program. In 1996, the PCPFS introduced a new health-related fitness program using criterion-referenced health standards as opposed to normative standards, but it was subse- quently discontinued. Items in the PCPFS battery (modified version of the Youth Fitness Test) introduced in 1986 are shown in Table 2-4. Over the years, the test battery has evolved to include mostly items considered to be health related (with the exception of the shuttle run). The PCFSN battery included in the President's Challenge Program still uses normative standards and offers awards based on those standards. During the 1990s, calls for a public health basis for youth fitness testing received much attention (Sallis and McKenzie, 1991; Simons-Morton et al., 1988). Papers were published questioning the use of youth fitness tests and award schemes (Corbin et al., 1990; Keating, 2003; Rowland, 1995), and concerns about the proper use and misuse of tests were expressed (Corbin et al., 1990). Some research led to a call for the end of youth fitness testing as a result of findings implying the adverse effects of testing in academic settings and its ineffectiveness in promoting physical activity (Cale et al.,

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32 FITNESS MEASURES AND HEALTH OUTCOMES IN YOUTH TABLE 2-4 Evolution of President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports (PCPFS)/President's Council on Physical Fitness, Sports, and Nutrition (PCFSN) and Fitnessgram National Test Batteries Test Item PCPFS/PCFSN Fitnessgram 600-yard run 1986 Shuttle run (10 meters) 1986, current Mile run 1988, current alternative Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular 1988, current Endurance Run (PACER) (20-meter alternative shuttle) PACER (15-meter shuttle) Current alternative Walk test Current alternative Mile, half-mile, quarter-mile run Current based on age Pull-up 1986, current 1988, alternative 90-degree push-up 1988, current Right-angle push-up, flexed arm hang Current alternative Modified pull-up 1988, current alternative Curl-up, feet held 1986, current Curl-up 1988, current Partial curl-up Current alternative Trunk lift 1988, current Shoulder stretch 1988, current V-sit reach 1986, current V sit-and-reach Current Two-leg sit-and-reach Current alternative Backsaver sit-and-reach 1988, current Skinfold (body composition) 1988, current alternative Body mass index (BMI) 1988, current alternative NOTE: The year shown indicates when the test was first implemented. "Current" indicates items in the current version of the battery. "Alternative" means the item is an alternative for measuring the particular construct.

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MEASURING FITNESS IN YOUTH 33 TABLE 2-5 Key Historical Events/Publications in Youth Fitness Testing in the United States, 1990-2012 Year Historical Event/Publication 1992 Forum in the Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport published, including a lead manuscript entitled "Are American Children and Youth Fit?" (Corbin and Pangrazi, 1992) 1994 Physical Activity Guidelines for Adolescents: Consensus Statement published (Sallis and Patrick, 1994) 1994 Fitnessgram manual providing battery justification, description, and rationale released (Morrow et al., 1994) 1995 Complete Guide to Youth Fitness Testing published (Safrit, 1995) 1995 Rowland (1995) questions viability of youth fitness testing 1996 Physical Activity and Health: A Report of the Surgeon General published (HHS, 1996) 1998 Physical Activity for Children: A Statement of Guidelines published (NASPE, 1998) 2002 Keating and colleagues (2002) report on preservice teacher attitudes toward youth fitness tests published 2004 Keating and Silverman (2004) report on teacher use of youth fitness tests published 2004 National Association for Sport and Physical Education (NASPE) updates physical activity guidelines for children (NASPE, 2004) 2005 Evidence Based Physical Activity for School-Age Youth published (Strong et al., 2005) 2005 Are American Children and Youth Fit?: It's Time We Learned published (Morrow, 2005) 2007 Commentary on youth fitness testing published (Rowland, 2007) 2008 Measurement in Physical Education and Exercise Science special issue on Youth Fitness Testing: A Positive Perspective published (Liu, 2008) 2008 Physical activity guidelines for Americans released (HHS, 2008) 2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) National Youth Fitness Survey launched SOURCE: Adapted from Morrow et al., 2009.

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TABLE 2-6 CONTINUED 38 Battery Name Age (yrs) of Tested (Country) Population Tests Component Assessed References Assessing Levels 13-17 Handgrip strength Isometric strength Espaa-Romero et al., of Physical Standing long jump Lower-body strength 2010; Ruiz et al., 2011 Activity 4 10-meter shuttle run Speed and agility (ALPHA) 20-meter shuttle run Cardiorespiratory fitness Health-Related BMI Body composition Fitness Test Waist circumference Body composition Battery for Skinfold thickness Body composition Children and Adolescents (Europe) Singapore >12 Sit-ups in 1 minute Abdominal muscular Ngee Ann Polytechnic, National endurance 2002; Schmidt, 1995 Physical Fitness Standing broad jump Muscular power Award (NAPFA) Sit-and-reach Flexibility Scheme Pull-ups in 30 seconds (full Upper-body muscular (Singapore) pull-ups are performed by endurance males aged >15; females and males aged 15 perform a modified inclined pull-up [an inclined flexed arm hang]) 10 4-meter shuttle run Speed and agility Walk-run test (run on firm and Muscular endurance and level surface over a distance cardiovascular fitness of 2.4 km [1.5 mile] for secondary school students or 1.6 km [1 mile] for primary school students)

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Nation-Wide 7-18 Bent-leg sit-up Abdominal muscular strength Chen et al., 2002; Chiang Children and and endurance et al., 1998 Youth Fitness Standing long jump Explosive power Study Modified sit-and-reach Flexibility of lower back and (Taiwan) upper thigh 800-meter (boys <13 and all Cardiorespiratory endurance girls) or 1600-meter (boys 13) run/walk; test not administered to children 8 Physical Fitness 6-9 Side step Physical ability Shingo and Takeo, 2002 and Athletic 10-17 Vertical jump Instantaneous power Ability Test Back strength Muscle strength (Japan) Grip strength Muscle strength Trunk extension Flexibility Standing flexion Flexibility Step test Endurance 50-meter run Athletic ability Long jump Athletic ability Ball throw (softball for ages 10- Athletic ability 11; handball for older children) Pull-up (modified pull-up for Athletic ability children aged 10-11 and girls of all ages) Zigzag dribble (test Athletic ability implemented after 1966 and used only with children 12 years of age) Continuous going up foot over Athletic ability foot, using a low horizontal bar, in 10 seconds (test implemented after 1966 and used only with 39 children 12 years of age) continued

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TABLE 2-6 Continued 40 Battery Name Age (yrs) of Tested (Country) Population Tests Component Assessed References Endurance run (used only Athletic ability with children 12 years of age; 1,500-meter for boys; 1,000-meter for girls) Australian 9-18 Multistage fitness test (also Cardiorespiratory endurance ACHPER, 1996 Fitness known as 20-meter shuttle run, Education Beep test, or PACER) Award (AFEA)a 1.6-km (1-mile) run/walk Cardiorespiratory endurance (Australia Curl-up Muscular endurance (and strength) Basketball throw Muscular strength (and endurance) Sit-and-reach Muscle and joint flexibility Shoulder stretch Muscle and joint flexibility Physical Fitness 7-19 50-meter dash Speed (short-distance) Pilicz et al., 2005 Score (Poland) Standing broad jump Explosive power Long run (fixed distance or Cardiorespiratory endurance fixed time period) Handgrip Handgrip strength Relative strength (pull-up or Muscular strength arm hang) Shuttle run Speed, agility, coordination Sit-up Abdominal muscular strength (and endurance) Bend trunk Flexibility

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Canadian Initial focus PACER test (from Fitnessgram) Cardiorespiratory endurance Lloyd and Tremblay, Assessment on children in Partial curl-up Muscular strength and 2011; Lloyd et al., 2010; of Physical grades 4-6; later endurance Tremblay and Lloyd, 2010 Literacy (CAPL) development for Push-up Muscular strength and Test other grades and endurance (Ontario, ages Grip strength Muscular strength and Canada) endurance Sit-and-reach Flexibility Arm flexibility Flexibility YMCA Youth Ages 6-17 1-mile run Cardiorespiratory endurance Franks, 1989 Fitness Test Tricep and calf skinfold Relative leanness Manual Sit-and-reach Flexibility, back health (United States) Curl-up Muscular strength and endurance Modified pull-up Muscular strength and endurance Physical Fitness >20 Distance run Aerobic fitness Malmberg, 2011 Tests in Nordic Shuttle run Aerobic fitness Armed Forces Lunge Muscular strength (Denmark) Dip Muscular strength Pull-up Muscular strength Dead-lift Muscular strength Plank Muscular strength March with loads and Function obstacles 41 continued

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TABLE 2-6 Continued 42 Battery Name Age (yrs) of Tested (Country) Population Tests Component Assessed References Physical Fitness >20 Timed run Aerobic fitness Malmberg, 2011 Tests in Nordic Ergometer Aerobic fitness Armed Forces Walk Aerobic fitness (Finland) Standing long jump Muscular strength Sit-up Muscular strength Push-up Muscular strength BMI Body composition Waist circumference Body composition March Function Physical Fitness >20 Distance run Aerobic fitness Malmberg, 2011 Tests in Nordic Swim Aerobic fitness Armed Forces Cross-country ski Aerobic fitness (Norway) Bicycle Muscular strength Pull-up Muscular strength Sit-up Muscular strength Push-up Muscular strength Physical Fitness >20 Shuttle run Aerobic fitness Malmberg, 2011 Tests in Nordic Swim Aerobic fitness Armed Forces Push-up Muscular strength (Sweden) Sit-up Muscular strength Vertical jump Muscular strength Back suspension Muscular strength Arm suspension Muscular strength NOTE: This table is not an exhaustive listing of international tests. China and South Korea, for example, conduct fitness tests regularly, but rel- evant publications are not available in English translations. All tests listed are field tests currently in use. In addition to field tests, laboratory tests, questionnaires such as the International Fitness Scale, and other assessment methods may be used. a Available at http://www.achper.org.au/bookshop/achper-resources/afea-kit (accessed August 31, 2012).

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