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Appendix A Acronyms, Abbreviations, and Terms ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS AHEI Alternate Healthy Eating Index AI Adequate Intake ARRA American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 ATUS American Time Use Survey BLS Bureau of Labor Statistics BMI body mass index BRR benefit reduction rate CACFP Child and Adult Care Food Program CFSM Core Food Security Module CNPP Center for Nutrition Policy and Promotion, U.S. Department of Agriculture CPI Consumer Price Index CPS Current Population Survey DGA Dietary Guidelines for Americans DRIs Dietary Reference Intakes EAR Estimated Average Requirement EBT Electronic Benefit Transfer EFNEP Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program ERS Economic Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture 187

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188 SUPPLEMENTAL NUTRITION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM FNS Food and Nutrition Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture FSP Food Stamp Program FY fiscal year HEI Healthy Eating Index HHS U.S. Department of Health and Human Services HIP Healthy Incentives Pilot IOM Institute of Medicine mg milligram NHANES National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey NSLP National School Lunch Program RDA Recommended Dietary Allowance RFS Recommended Food Score SBP School Breakfast Program SNAP Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program SNAP-Ed Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program-Education SoFAS solid fats and added sugars SSB sugar-sweetened beverage SSI Supplemental Security Income TANF Temporary Assistance for Needy Families TFP Thrifty Food Plan USDA U.S. Department of Agriculture WIC Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children TERMS Allotment The amount of the SNAP benefit issued to a certified eligible participant. Benefit reduction The rate at which the maximum SNAP allotment is rate reduced per dollar of income.

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APPENDIX A 189 Body mass index An indirect measure of body fat, calculated as the (BMI) ratio of a person’s body weight in kilograms to the square of a person’s height in meters. In children and youth, assessment of BMI is based on growth charts for age and gender and is referred to as BMI for age. Cost-of-living Adjustment of SNAP maximum allotments, deduc- adjustment tions, resources, and income eligibility standards at the beginning of each federal fiscal year based on changes in the cost of living. Dependent care The deduction received by a household with expenses deduction related to caring for a dependent while other household members attend school, work, or seek employment. Dietary Guidelines A federal report of the latest dietary guidance for the for Americans American public based on current scientific evidence and medical knowledge. The Dietary Guidelines are issued jointly by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and the U.S. Department of Agricul- ture and revised every 5 years. Dietary Reference A set of nutrient reference values established by Intakes (DRIs) the Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine. They include the Estimated Average Re- quirement, the Recommended Dietary Intakes, the Adequate Intake, and the Tolerable Upper Intake Level. Earned income To account for the cost of being employed (e.g., deduction transportation and clothing), 20 percent of earned income is disregarded in calculations of a household’s net income on which the benefit level is based. Economies of scale Food costs for the Thrifty Food Plan are based on individuals in the context of a reference four-person family. For households that are larger or smaller than the reference, per person food costs are adjusted u ­ sing an adjustment factor. Electronic Benefit An electronic system that allows recipients to au- Transfer (EBT) thorize transfer of their government benefits from a federal account to a retailer’s account to pay for products received.

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190 SUPPLEMENTAL NUTRITION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM Energy density The ratio of calories (energy) to total nutrients in a food. An energy-dense food has a high number of calories relative to its nutrient content. Excess shelter The deduction received by households that spend 50 deduction percent or more of their income on housing costs (e.g., rent/mortgage, taxes, interest, utilities) after other deductions have been calculated. The deduc- tion was capped at $459 in fiscal year 2012 for households in the 48 contiguous states that do not contain an elderly or disabled member. Food coupon Any coupon, stamp, or type of certificate issued pursu- ant to the provisions of the Food Stamp Act of 1964; its use was restricted to purchases of food (no tobacco or alcohol products) from retail food stores approved for participation in the Food Stamp Program. The Electronic Benefit Transfer card has replaced food coupons. Food desert Defined by the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Eco- nomic Research Service as a low-income census tract with a substantial number or share of residents with low levels of access to retail outlets selling healthy and affordable foods. Food Security A national survey of a sample of households derived Supplement from those eligible for the basic Current Population Survey (CPS). Its purpose is to obtain information about household food expenditures, food program participation, food sufficiency, ways of coping with food insecurity, and concerns about food security. Gross income A household’s total monthly income before deduc- tions are applied. Gross income limit An amount of monthly gross income below which households are eligible to receive SNAP benefits, de- termined by household size. The limit must be equal to or less than 130 percent of the national poverty threshold. Healthy Eating A measure of diet quality that assesses conformance Index (HEI) to federal dietary guidance.

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APPENDIX A 191 Maximum benefit The benefit received by households whose net income is zero or negative. It varies by household size. Medical deduction The deduction received by households with a disabled member or member age 60 and over whose monthly out-of-pocket medical expenses exceeed $35. Minimum benefit In fiscal year 2012, $16 per month for one- and two- person households. National Health A comprehensive survey designed to assess the health and Nutrition and nutritional status of adults and children in the Examination United States. The survey interview includes demo- Survey (NHANES) graphic, socioeconomic, dietary, and health-related questions. The examination component consists of medical, dental, and physiological measurements, as well as laboratory tests administered by highly trained medical personnel. National poverty Issued by the U.S. Department of Health and Human ­ threshold Services and used to determine the monthly net i ­ncome limits for SNAP. National School The program under which participating schools op- Lunch Program erate a nonprofit lunch program in accordance with (NSLP) 7 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 210. Net income A household’s total monthly income after deductions are applied. Net income limit An amount of monthly net income below which households are eligible to receive SNAP benefits, de- termined by household size. The limit must be equal to or less than 100 percent of the national poverty threshold. Price index An index that tracks inflation by measuring price changes. Reference family Used as the basis for determining the maximum SNAP benefit, derived from the Thrifty Food Plan market basket for age-sex groups. The reference fam- ily comprises a male and female aged 19-50 and two children aged 6-8 and 9-11.

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192 SUPPLEMENTAL NUTRITION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM Resource limit An amount of countable resources below which households are eligible for SNAP. Countable re- sources include cash on hand and resources that can easily be converted to cash (e.g., savings/checking accounts, stocks, bonds). In fiscal year 2012, the resource limit is $2,000, or $3,250 for households with at least one adult aged 60 or older or disabled. School Breakfast The program under which participating schools op- Program (SBP) erate a nonprofit breakfast program in accordance with 7 CFR Part 220. Standard The deduction received by all households, intended deduction to cover emergency and unusual household expenses. It varies by household size (e.g., in fiscal year 2012, $147 for households of one to three people, $155 for households of four or more). Supplemental A federally funded, need-based disability program Security Income for adults and children that provides a monthly cash (SSI) benefit to eligible participants. Take-up rate The percentage of eligible households that actually participate in SNAP. Thrifty Food Plan A minimal-cost model food plan that reflects cur- rently applied nutrition standards and guidance, the nutrient content and cost of food, and the food con- sumption patterns of low-income Americans.