E

Disruptive Innovations

Area of IPE Program/Idea Description
Curricular innovations

Concentrates on what is being taught to health professions learners to meet evolving domestic and international needs
Faculty sharing Lorna Lynn from the American Board of Internal Medicine presented for her “Better Care” small group. She echoed a common theme of needing greater faculty development but then went on to introduce a new concept. The idea is “faculty sharing.” In this scheme any school or university could use skills and knowledge of any faculty member in any school in order to promote educational understanding of interprofessional education (IPE).


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E Disruptive Innovations Area of IPE Program/Idea Description Curricular innovations Faculty sharing Lorna Lynn from the American Board of Internal Concentrates on what is Medicine presented for her being taught to health “Better Care” small group. professions learners to meet She echoed a common theme evolving domestic and inter- of needing greater faculty national needs development but then went on to introduce a new concept. The idea is “faculty sharing.” In this scheme any school or university could use skills and knowledge of any faculty member in any school in order to promote educational understanding of interprofessional educa- tion (IPE). 157

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158 INTERPROFESSIONAL EDUCATION FOR COLLABORATION Area of IPE Program/Idea Description Global collaborative leader- The idea is to co-create, ship model develop, and implement a global collaborative leader- ship model. This model builds on relationships among the South Africa Collaborative, the collab- orative in Uganda, and the Indian Collaborative and aims to enhance the cultural applicability of a leadership curriculum. The hope is to apply the lessons learned from each of the country collaboratives about the various ways of addressing and teaching leadership to students and health profes- sionals (see Appendix C for details on the country collaboratives). Pedagogic innovations Pass/fail curriculums In his remarks about trust, Sandeep Kishore, who rep- Looks at how the informa- resented health professional tion can be better taught to students, observed that a students and where educa- culture of trust on university tion can take place campuses has given way to stereotypes of competi- tive students sabotaging the work of fellow learners. He thinks the grading system is one of the triggers prevent- ing collaboration that could be addressed through pass/ fail curriculums at the university level.

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APPENDIX E 159 Area of IPE Program/Idea Description Jeffersonian dinners Tina Brashers and other IPE educators from the Univer- sity of Virginia (UVA) cre- ated a social space through what is known at UVA as a Jeffersonian dinner. At this honorific event, key students are invited to sit down with a group of roughly 10 educators to talk through ideas on how the professions could work more effectively together. Hub-and-spoke model Mark Earnest at the Univer- sity of Colorado recognized early on the daunting task of trying to train every clini- cal preceptor to be an IPE preceptor. As a result, he and his colleagues adopted a “hub-and-spoke” model in which a single preceptor monitors multiple teams working in different settings. When the teams are in their settings, they typically work with their profession-specific preceptors. Following the experience, teams reconvene with the IPE preceptor, who reviews the process with the students. In this model, students learn by experi- encing negative as well as positive examples. One of the goals at the University of Colorado is to help learners stay focused on positive ex- amples of collaboration and to become agents of change when the situation dictates a need for greater collabora- tion. Dawn Forman at Cur- tin University in Australia also uses the hub-and-spoke model.

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160 INTERPROFESSIONAL EDUCATION FOR COLLABORATION Area of IPE Program/Idea Description Cultural elements Service learning model In her summary remarks, Forum member Madeline Addresses who is being Schmitt noted that the taught by whom as a means service learning model gets of enhancing the effective- students into the community ness of the design, develop- and gets them there early. ment, and implementation But she also pointed out of interprofessional health that speakers often found professional education that service learning is disconnected from the clini- cal experiences that come afterward. In Uganda, where service learning and social ac- countability are used as an organizing framework for the curriculum, when students go into their clinical experiences, the IPE drops off. Linking IPE and service throughout the continuum of health professional educa- tion is a tool for achieving a person-centered perspective. Service learning is a concept that Marietjie de Villiers from South Africa compared to the “helicopter model.” As she says, “We shouldn’t be coming in and providing care. We should be integrat- ing and understanding and learning from the patients and from the people within the community.”

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APPENDIX E 161 Area of IPE Program/Idea Description Patients as educators According to Sally Okun from PatientsLikeMe, trust begins with acknowledging the importance of patient engagement. By partner- ing with patients, provid- ers and learners gain a better understanding of the needs and concerns of the populations and individuals they are serving. Through better alignment, providers, learners, and patients build trust that can lead to shared values, such as improved use of technology and patient empowerment through data. These data can be gener- ated by patients themselves and shared with students and providers once trust is established.

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162 INTERPROFESSIONAL EDUCATION FOR COLLABORATION Area of IPE Program/Idea Description Human resources for health Community colleges Forum member Warren Newton commented on the Focuses on how capacity can cost of U.S. education and be innovatively expanded to perhaps also education in better ensure an adequate the United Kingdom. This supply and mix of educated is an unprecedented period health workers based on of time and change when local needs higher education is being fiscally driven and is expe- riencing challenges similar to those in medicine with regard to cost, quality, and patient (or student) experi- ence, he said. Community colleges may be one solution to the fiscal obstacles to education. In the United States, 40 percent of adults in higher education are in community colleges. It’s where the new profes- sions that will be needed to transform education will come from in addition to the traditional educational sys- tems. Today’s professional and educational leaders need to understand this broader context when discussing practice redesign. Metrics MedEdPORTAL Forum member Carol Aschenbrener who is Addresses how one measures with the Association of whether learner assessments American Medical Col- and the evaluation of leges received funding educational impact and care from the Macy Foundation delivery systems influence to develop an IPE portal individual and population on the MedEdPORTAL health. platform. On this web- site there is a section for non-peer-reviewed publica- tions called iCollaborative, where anyone can submit ideas and share thoughts on activities under way at their institutions.

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APPENDIX E 163 Area of IPE Program/Idea Description Value-added learners In an effort to integrate learners into Colorado Chil- dren’s Hospital, students of Mark Earnest, the director of interprofessional educa- tion at the University of Col- orado, gathered requested data for the hospital. This is a cost savings for the hospital and an educational bonus for students, who are no longer seen as a burden to the system. Student educators Mark Earnest also orga- nizes students to assess how well the hospital teams function. After receiving proper training, the students then observe those clinical teams that volunteered for the activity. Following the observation, feedback is pro- vided to the teams on how they might improve their teamwork.

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