of the Public Health Foundation of India in New Delhi that is designed to build the capacity of health professionals in India by establishing a cluster for health workforce planners with a focus on the education of health professionals. One objective of their work is to identify the interdisciplinary health care leadership competencies relevant to medical, nursing, and public health professional education in India. Once these competencies are identified, Zodpey said, his collaborative plans to develop and pilot an interprofessional training model for physicians, nurses, and public health professionals to develop the leadership skills relevant to the 21st-century health systems in India.

In Uganda, workshop speaker and Innovation Collaborative lead Nelson Sewankambo worked with colleagues to introduce IPE in 2001 because there was a shortage of teachers and health workers in the country. In designing the IPE curriculum for Makerere University, Sewankambo worked closely with the Ministry of Health to ensure that its graduates entered the workforce with the right set of skills to affect the entire population and community they are trying to serve. A description of the Indian and the Ugandan innovation collaborations and how their collaborative work relates to the Global Forum can be found in Appendix C.

IPE and the Industrialization of Health Care

Workshop speaker Rosemary Gibson from the Archives of Internal Medicine suggested that the challenges facing IPE are related to the broader health care system in which it is operating. Considering the impact of the system on IPE, she addressed what she refers to as the “industrialization of health care,” which has led to a system that values health as a commodity. She noted that within this culture patients stand a high risk of diminished safety and care.

Before providing comments on system issues related to IPE, she shared her experience of mainstreaming palliative care into the health care system as an example of a promising interprofessional enterprise. In 1995, a major study showed how poorly the U.S. health care system takes care of people at the end of life (SUPPORT Investigators, 1995). In response, the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, where Gibson was working, made $250 million in investments to address end-of-life issues. Palliative care teams were assembled in a number of hospitals with these funds that consisted of physicians, nurses, pharmacists, clergy, and volunteers working together to care for seriously ill patients at the end of their lives. The palliative care model developed in this effort has been considered a success by those working in palliative care, with 1,500 hospitals employing palliative care teams in 2012. Furthermore, the American Academy of Hospice and Palliative



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