versity of Minnesota—concerned the message being sent to students when interprofessional education is an optional instead of a required course. When it is required, Lewis said, it sends a clear message that it is something important that the student needs to learn. Wong agreed with that. In her education, she said, there was one required interprofessional course. But, she said, that course exposed her to IPE, which was the impetus for her pursuit of more interprofessional opportunities at the university. As she reflected upon her IPE experiences at the university, she said that she felt that the elective IPE courses helped her learn about what interprofessionalism is and that her experience at the student-run clinic helped her apply the theoretical knowledge in practice. Despite her high regard for the interprofessional opportunities afforded to her at the university, Wong would have liked a broader exposure to other health professions, such as physical therapy, dentistry, public health, and medicine; most of her interprofessional experiences were with nursing only, she said, which she found limiting.

A key observation that Wong said she made during her IPE experience was that in the rotations there is a difference between actual collaboration and a team made up of multiple different disciplines. As she put it, “I can have teammates from medicine, nutrition, and nursing, but if they do not talk to each other, then that is not IPE, and that is just a different Skittles mix of professionals.”

Wong also said that she would have liked more practice-based interprofessional experiences earlier in her education. According to Wong, it was not until her third year that she had a simulation in which nursing and pharmacy students were working together that was not paper-based. It was through her academic experience and working with patients that she was able to appreciate the value of interprofessional work. As Wong explained it, it really helped her “see how this interdisciplinary system helped my patient, because now [my patient] is actually fully controlled in all three disease states because he had a continuation of care with every single one of those professions that actually came to help him.”

LEARNING FROM PEOPLE

Sally Okun from PatientsLikeMe, who led the breakout group on enhanced access, provided a synopsis of that group’s discussions. Her small group was asked to consider five areas of potential innovation within the general area of enhanced access; those five areas were culture, pedagogy, curriculum, metrics, and human resources for health (HRH). Okun started her report to the workshop participants by saying that one of the things her group was charged with was to think about enhanced access in terms of the education of patients and populations as learners and educators of team-based, collaborative care. She reported trying to address this charge



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