measuring the different domains of value. Chapter 3 describes many of the outcomes that can be measured and weighted in each domain.

The assessment of value of an intervention usually takes place within a decision-making context. Stakeholders and decision makers come from different perspectives and emphasize different factors. It is important, therefore, that the value assessment reflect the preferences of an inclusive range of stakeholders. It is also important that there be transparency in the use of the framework so that there is understanding about the rationale and evidence used for making decisions.

As stated earlier, the proposed framework is in its very early stages and much is yet to be learned. However, the framework identifies critical areas for valuing and the report proposes additional areas where work needs to be undertaken.

REFERENCES

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IOM (Institute of Medicine). 2011. A nationwide framework for surveillance of cardiovascular and chronic lung diseases. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

Luce, B., W. Manning, J. Siegel, and J. Lipscomb. 1996. Estimating costs in cost-effectiveness analysis. In Cost effectiveness in health and medicine, edited by M. Gold and J. Siegel. New York: Oxford University Press.

Peacock, S., J. Richardson, R. Carter, and D. Edwards. 2007. Priority setting in health care using Multi-Attribute Utility Theory and Programme Budgeting and Marginal Analysis (PBMA). Social Science & Medicine 64(4):897-910.

Polsky, D., and H. Glick. 2009. Costing and cost analysis in randomised trials: Caveat emptor. Pharmacoeconomics 27(3):179.

Pronk, N. P. 2012. The power of context: Moving from information and knowledge to practical wisdom for improving physical activity and dietary behaviors. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 42(1):103-104.

Zahedi, F. 1986. The analytic hierarchy process—a survey of the method and its applications. Interfaces 16(4):96-108.



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