Community-based program, as defined for this report, is a coordinated activity or set of activities, such as an educational campaign against smoking, improvements to the built environment to encourage physical activity, or a chronic disease education and awareness campaign to improve self-management, or a combination of such interventions that is undertaken to accomplish a health objective or outcome.

Community participation refers to the engagement of those affected in the process of transforming conditions.

Community-placed activities are activities that are developed without the participation of the affected community at important stages of the project but for which effort is expended to generate community support.

Community process refers to several elements influencing community participation in the decision making as well as the design and implementation associated with community-based interventions. These elements include civic engagement, local leadership development, community representation, trust, skill building, and community history, among others.

Community well-being includes social norms, how people relate to each other and to their surroundings, and how much investment they are willing to make in themselves and in the people around them. Elements of community well-being include wealth, education, employment, safety, transportation, housing, worksites, food, health care, and recreational spaces.

Costs, for purposes of this report, are the resources necessary to implement a community-based preventive intervention and produce its benefits.

Ecological model “assumes that health and well-being are affected by the interaction among multiple determinants including biology, behavior, and the environment” (IOM, 2003, p. 32).

Empowerment refers to the individual or collective capacity to exercise control over the conditions and circumstances that influence health and well-being.

Harms are the non-economic costs of an intervention to a community, for example, the inconvenience and noise of construction of a bike or walking path or an increase in disparities caused by an intervention that helps one segment of the population more than another.

Health promotion “is the process of enabling people to increase control over, and to improve, their health. It moves beyond a focus on individual behaviour towards a wide range of social and environmental interventions” ( Health promotion approaches

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