Japan was then totally closed to competition, he said, and today “it is fully open. There is actually collaboration.” The United States created the industry-government partnership SEMATECH at that time, at first confined to U.S. membership, and today the group is international; it had evolved from joint government-industry support to almost entirely private support, and membership today is open to firms worldwide, including its Japanese, Korean, and Chinese members.

“I have not entered a day of any of our symposiums with a stronger feeling of how much we can gain from an exchange,” Mr. Wolff concluded. He again thanked Gert Wagner, chair of DIW, and his colleagues for hosting the symposium, and also Klaus Zimmerman, David Audretsch, and other organizers “for their vision in encouraging this series of cooperative meetings.” He singled out for thanks Jens Schmidt-Ehmcke of the DIW “without whose efforts this symposium would not be taking place.” He closed by introducing the next two speakers, Georg Schütte, State Secretary for Education and Research, and Philip Murphy, U.S. Ambassador to Germany, and praised “their commitment to better understanding of U.S. and German innovation policy and enhanced cooperation between our two countries.”

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