examples for various specific fields. What solutions and which models work, for example, in energy policy and energy research? What can the countries learn from one another in policy design?

Second, he said, the countries face similar unresolved challenges on many issues, including patenting, network neutrality, electro-mobility, and bio-medicine. “It seems meaningful to ask: What is the state of affairs? How can we compare them? What can we learn from each other?”

Finally, he asked, “where can we succeed through increased cooperation to tap into common potentials?” For example, he suggested, both countries share an interest in using renewable energy as efficiently as possible. In such areas, there may be not only common technological interests, but also common political challenges and goals. “If we share a consensus that education, research, and development are so important that they should take precedence over other policy areas, how can we convince our political representatives? How can we convince the public that it is important, despite the need for fiscal restraint, to spend more money in this area than in other areas?”

Secretary Schütte recalled President Obama’s State of the Union address, in which he said “we need to out-innovate, out-educate, and out-build the rest of the world.” If that is correct, he said, it will require individual countries to find parts of the answer. But it will also require cooperation among those nations to find the full set of answers and implement them together. “It’s this combination of competition and cooperation that will lead us forward,” he concluded, urging participants to keep this in mind throughout the symposium: “Where can we cooperate? How can we cooperate in such a way that competition will help us move forward?”

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