Personal Factors Vector or Agent Factors Physical Environmental Factors Social Environmental Factors Policy Factors

  •  Neuroendocrine status at the time of confrontation

  •  Autonomic nervous system status

  •  Perceived threat

  •  Attribution of ill intent

  •  Perceived disrespect

  •  Risk/benefit calculation

  •  Perceived fiscal opportunity (e.g., shoes, jewelry, cars)

  •  Perceived vulnerability of targets

  •  Darkness

  •  Isolation

  •  Lack of video surveillance

  •  Presence of attractive material goods

  •  Unplanned or planned encounter with outgroup members

  •  Special animus toward particular out-group members

  •  Presence of peer gang witnesses

  •  Presence of a female the actor wishes to impress

  •  Absence of other witnesses

  •  Politically influenced maldistribution of law enforcement resources nearby the scene


  •  Enhanced self-esteem or perceived glory

  •  Relief of internal tension

  •  Enhanced personal fiscal status (e.g., due to robbery)

  •  Containment or denial of remorse

  •  Reinforcement of a narrative of the necessity of violent actions and the low risk of consequences

  •  Ready escape routes and hideouts

  •  Limits on technology of tracking

  •  Enhanced in-group respect

  •  Social promotion

  •  Enhanced access to fertile females

  •  Social networks supporting concealment

  •  Rarity of meaningful changes in gangpromoting public policies, even after the worst instances of gang violence

aLeva refers to being given the silent treatment by other gang members due to period infractions of the code of conduct.

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