of a syphilis epidemic in gay men in Chicago: “We put signs on the buses. The epidemic went away. The signs came down. The epidemic came back.” He suggested that three things are needed to stop an epidemic: an evidence base, an implementation system, and political will.

Key Messages Raised by Individual Speakers

  •  Violence is contagious both within and across types of violence (Dubow, Fagan, Gould, Huesmann, Slutkin, Watts).

  •  Social norms contribute to the contagion of violence and norms change has the potential to interrupt it (Fagan, Gould, Slutkin, Watts).

  •  Media can both facilitate and prevent the contagion of violence; however, the role of the Internet in the contagion process is not well understood (Fagan, Gould, Huesmann, Watts).

  •  Dose-response effect applies across types of violence (Dubow, Gould, Watts).

  •  Understanding the contagion process can inform the development of violence prevention interventions as well as illuminate potential unintended consequences that affect other types of violence (Bell, Fagan, Gould, Watts).

REFERENCES

Abramsky, T., C. Watts, C. Garcia-Moreno, K. Devries, L. Kiss, M. Ellsberg, H. Jansen, and L. Heise 2011. What factors are associated with recent intimate partner violence? Findings from the WHO multi-country study on women’s health and domestic violence. BMC Public Health 11:109.

Crooks, C. V. 2011. The science of interrupting/preventing the cycle of violence. Presented at IOM Workshop on Preventing Violence Against Women and Children, Washington, DC, January 27.

Cummings, E. M., E. Cairns, M. C. Goeke-Morey, C. E. Merrilees, A. C. Schermerhorn, and P. Shirlow. 2010. Political violence and child adjustment in Northern Ireland: Testing pathways in a social-ecological model including single- and two-parent families. Developmental Psychology 46:827-841.

Cummings, E. M., E. Cairns, M. C. Goecke-Morey, C. E. Merrilees, A. C. Schermerhorn, and P. Shirlow. 2011. Longitudinal pathways between political violence and child adjustment: The role of emotional security about the community in Northern Ireland. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 39:213-224.

Devries, K., C. Watts, M. Yoshihama, L. Kiss, L. B. Schraiber, N. Deyessa, L. Heise, J. Durand, J. Mbwambo, H. Jansen, Y. Berhane, M. Ellsberg, C. Garcia-Moreno. 2011. Violence against women is strongly associated with suicide attempts: Evidence from the WHO multi-country study on women’s health and domestic violence against women. Social Science Medicine 73(1):79-86.

Dubow, E. F., L. R. Boxer, J. Ginges, S. Gvirsman, L. R. Huesmann, S. Landau, and K. Shikaki. 2010. Exposure to conflict and violence across contexts: Relations to adjustment among Palestinian children. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology 39:103-116.



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