the National Liberty Museum. Raised in Basra, Iraq, Ms. Al-Suwaij fled the country after participating in the 1991 uprising against Saddam Hussein and is now a U.S. citizen living in the Washington, DC, area.

Carl C. Bell, M.D., a clinical professor of psychiatry and public health, is the director of the Institute for Juvenile Research (IJR) at the University of Illinois at Chicago (UIC). IJR is a century-old, multimillion-dollar academic institute providing child and family research, training, and service, employing 257 academic faculty and support staff. Dr. Bell is also the president and chief executive (CEO) of Community Mental Health Council & Foundation, Inc., in Chicago, a large multimillion dollar comprehensive community mental health center employing 390 social service experts. Over 40 years, he has published more than 450 articles, chapters, and books on mental health and authored The Sanity of Survival. He has been interviewed by Ebony, Jet, Essence, Emerge, New York Times, Chicago Tribune Magazine, People Magazine, Chicago Reporter, Nightline, ABC News, National Public Radio, CBS Sunday Morning, the News Hour with Jim Lehrer, the Tom Joyner Morning Show, Chicago Tonight, and the Today show. A graduate of UIC, he earned his M.D. from Meharry College in Nashville. In 2011, Dr. Bell received the American Psychiatric Association’s annual Solomon Carter Fuller Award at Institute on Psychiatric Services. He completed his psychiatric residency in 1974 at the Illinois State Psychiatric Institute/IJR in Chicago.

Patrick Burton, M.Sc., H.Dip., is the executive director of the Centre for Justice and Crime Prevention (CJCP), a Cape Town—based nongovernmental organization engaged in the field of social justice and crime prevention, with a particular focus on children and youth. He has undertaken work in the security; HIV/AIDS and health; information and communications technology; and small business sectors. He previously worked for the National Department of Provincial and Local Government, as well as to the National Department of Communications. While at CJCP, Mr. Burton has worked on the first national youth victimization study to be conducted in South Africa, youth resilience to violence study, a national school violence baseline study, and a cyber-violence pilot study. Other more recent projects undertaken include explorations into the causes and nature of youth violence, and intensive work into the extent and nature of school violence in South Africa and the region. He has undertaken work in Bangladesh, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Ethiopia, India, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa, South Sudan, and Tanzania. Mr. Burton is a postgraduate development researcher, having graduated from the University of the Witwatersrand with a higher diploma in development planning, and from the University of KwaZulu-Natal (Durban) with an M.S. in development studies, with a gender focus.



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