males by the U.S. criminal justice system (which reduces their ability to become resilient to or immune to violence) exacerbates their susceptibility to violence.

Gender

Dr. Gorman-Smith commented on gender and its relation to family and disruption, noting that 92 percent of incarcerated parents are men, and the number is growing. She stated that there is a lot of attention to reentry programs, but that most of those programs are focused on work and education. Dr. Gorman-Smith also noted that there are almost no programs and no single evidence-based intervention focused on helping men reenter their families as they come back from prison. Some data show that assuming an active fathering role relates to more successful reentry given that active fathering reduces depression, increases employment stability, and relates to decreased recidivism.

Dr. Ross-Sheriff spoke of resilience among migrant women who are highly impacted by violence, and out of the approximate 15-20 million global refugees (not including internally displaced people) per year, 80 percent of the refugees in refugee camps are women and children. Dr. Ross-Sheriff stated that these women and children experience physical, sexual, and emotional violence in camps, in outside spaces, and within their homes.

Mental Illness and Disabilities

Dr. Krisberg commented on the presence of mental illness and disabilities with respect to increasing an individual’s susceptibility to violence. He stated that victims of violence in prisons are highly likely to be mentally ill or have cognitive or physical disabilities. Such disabilities can add increased stress and trauma in an already violent environment.

Family

Dr. Gorman-Smith spoke about social and structural moderators with respect to the role of family and positive parenting. She stated that families are central to understanding violence and the contagion. Dr. Gorman-Smith listed important aspects of parenting and family functioning that can increase susceptibility to violence, aggression in youth, family and intimate partner violence, and child abuse and neglect. These include various aspects of parenting practices such as harsh or coercive discipline over the course of the child’s life, hostility within the family, conflict, absence of warmth or



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