FIGURE 4.6 Citizenship of physics PhDs in U.S. institutions of higher learning from 1969 through 2008. SOURCE: Reprinted, with permission, from Mulvey, Patrick J., and Starr Nicholson. 2011. Physics Graduate Degrees: Results from the Enrollments and Degrees and the Degree Recipient Follow-up Surveys, available at


Finding: The committee notes that there have been several areas of optics and photonics with significant advancement for defense and security since the NRC’s report Harnessing Light: Optical Science and Engineering for the 21st Century was published in 1998. These areas include the following:

• Long-range, laser-based identification capabilities, including multiple aperture and synthetic aperture demonstrations, wide-area passive surveillance capabilities in the visible and infrared regions, and signal processing capabilities to handle some of the new sensor data;

• Long-range, high-powered laser demonstrations from flight platforms for

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