intercepting ballistic missiles. Although these programs have had successful demonstrations, the DOD has not set a roadmap for this technology; and

• High-speed free-space laser communication.

Key Conclusion: There is possible synergy between optical surveillance technology, laser weapon technology, and free-space laser technology. Because of organizational and funding issues within the Department of Defense, these technical areas have been pursued mostly as separate technologies. Great progress has been made, as highlighted above, but it is likely that a higher level of cooperation can result in additional synergies.

Conclusion: The findings of previous National Research Council studies reporting the potential workforce shortages for the United States in the areas of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics are consistent for the areas of optics and photonics in relation to defense and security. There are additional constraints for the defense workforce, which requires either a sufficient number of qualified U.S. nationals or a new way of leveraging uncleared individuals in the U.S. defense workforce, and will be significantly impacted by a decrease of senior personnel due to the retirement of a disproportionately older workforce over the next 15 years.

Conclusion: It is possible that the United States is losing both first access and assured access to critical optics and photonics technologies at precisely the same time that these capabilities are becoming a crucial defense technological advantage. This problem, which is not unique to photonics within defense-related technologies and systems, is believed to be primarily due to these factors:

• The ongoing migration of optics and photonics capabilities offshore as the manufacture and assembly of these components and systems becomes increasingly globalized; and

• The inability of companies to maintain a U.S.-based manufacturing capability for critical technologies when the larger commercial markets are restricted due to ITAR controls, which have not been changed to reflect the globalization of manufacturing for cutting-edge photonics systems and components.

Key Finding: Silicon-based photonic integration technologies offer great potential for short-distance applications and could have a great payoff in terms of enabling continued growth in the function and capacity of silicon chips if optics for interconnection could be seamlessly included in the silicon complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) platform. It is also highly likely that integrated optoelectronics



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