the most recent generation of high-throughput sequencing instruments are based on optical methods.

RECOMMENDATIONS

Key Recommendation: The U.S. optics and photonics community should develop new instrumentation to allow simultaneous measurement of all immune-system cell types in a blood sample. Many health issues could be addressed by an improved knowledge of the immune system, which represents one of the major areas requiring better understanding.

Key Recommendation: New approaches, or dramatic improvements in existing methods and instruments, should be developed by industry and academia to increase the rate at which new pharmaceuticals can be safely developed and proved effective. Developing these approaches will require investment by the government and the private sector in optical methods integrated with high-speed sample-handling robotics, methods for evaluating the molecular makeup of microscopic samples, and increased sensitivity and specificity for detecting antibodies, enzymes, and important cell phenotypes.

Recommendation: The U.S. health care diagnostics industry, in cooperation with academia, should prioritize the development of low-cost diagnostics for extremely drug-resistant and multi-drug-resistant TB, malaria, HIV, and other dangerous pathogens, and low-cost blood-serum- and tissue-analysis technology to potentially save millions of lives per year.

Recommendation: The U.S. health care industry, in cooperation with academia, should prioritize the development of new optical instruments and integrated incubation technology capable of imaging expanding and differentiating cell cultures in vitro and in vivo, to provide important tools for predicting the safety and efficacy of stem-cell-derived tissue transplants.

Recommendation: The U.S. software and information technology industry, in cooperation with academia, should prioritize the development of new software methods automating the extracting, quantifying, and highlighting of important features in large, two- and three-dimensional data sets to optimize the utility of the latest generation of imaging instruments.

Recommendation: The U.S. life science instrumentation industry, in cooperation with academia and the federal government, should prioritize the development of the next generation of super-high-throughput sequencing devices, required for



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