lowering the cost of sequencing down to the target cost of $1,000 per genome. This will require advances in high-sensitivity, low-noise, high-resolution CCD cameras, high-efficiency laser sources, and nanophotonic devices integrated with microfluidics and automated systematic analysis.

Recommendation: The U.S. government should expand investment in multidisciplinary centers (e.g., at universities with medical and engineering schools) at which critical developments combining medical and engineering discoveries can be efficiently fostered.

Recommendation: The U.S. government, in cooperation with scientific and medical societies, should facilitate the creation of an information technology infrastructure for sharing large amounts of medical and clinical data (e.g., quantitative imaging and molecular data) and open-source analysis tools.

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