FIGURE 7.5 The institutional locus of innovation in optics. An example from optoelectronic components for the communications industry. (a) Over the last nearly four decades, firms have remained the predominant source of U.S. Patent and Trademark Office patents in optoelectronics. NOTE: The industry, government, or university label is according to patent assignee. (b) Over the last four decades, universities have contributed to a growing percentage of optoelectronic publications. SOURCE: Reprinted, with permission, from Doutriaux, T. 2009. “The Resiliency of the Innovation Ecosystem: The Impact of Offshoring on Firms Versus Individual Technology Trajectories.” Work toward a master’s thesis. Advisor: E. Fuchs. Pittsburgh, Pa.: Carnegie Mellon University.