B

Acronyms and Abbreviations

AAAS American Association for the Advancement of Science
ABL Airborne Laser Laboratory
AC alternating current
ACF anisotropic conducive film
AFOSR Air Force Office of Scientific Research
AIDS acquired immune deficiency syndrome
AIP American Institute of Physics
ALTB Airborne Laser Test Bed
ALTSim alternative liquid fuels simulation model
AMD age-related macular degeneration
AMO atomic, molecular, optics
AO adaptive optics
APD avalanche photodiode
APPLE Adaptive Photonic Phase Locked Elements (program)
APRS advanced plasma reactive sputtering
APS American Physical Society
ARGUS-IS Autonomous Real-Time Ground Ubiquitous Surveillance-Imaging System
ARO Army Research Office
ARPA Advanced Research Projects Agency
ASML Advanced Semiconductor Materials Lithography (Dutch company)
ATL advanced tactical laser
ATP Advanced Technology Program


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B Acronyms and Abbreviations AAAS American Association for the Advancement of Science ABL Airborne Laser Laboratory AC alternating current ACF anisotropic conducive film AFOSR Air Force Office of Scientific Research AIDS acquired immune deficiency syndrome AIP American Institute of Physics ALTB Airborne Laser Test Bed ALTSim alternative liquid fuels simulation model AMD age-related macular degeneration AMO atomic, molecular, optics AO adaptive optics APD avalanche photodiode APPLE Adaptive Photonic Phase Locked Elements (program) APRS advanced plasma reactive sputtering APS American Physical Society ARGUS-IS Autonomous Real-Time Ground Ubiquitous Surveillance-Imaging System ARO Army Research Office ARPA Advanced Research Projects Agency ASML Advanced Semiconductor Materials Lithography (Dutch company) ATL advanced tactical laser ATP Advanced Technology Program 280

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A pp e n d i x B 281 BER bit error rate BRCA1 breast cancer susceptibility gene 1 BRCA2 breast cancer susceptibility gene 2 CAD computer-aided design CCD charge-coupled device CCT correlated color temperature Ce:YAG cerium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet CIA Central Intelligence Agency CIGS copper indium gallium selenide CLEO Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics CMOS complementary metal oxide semiconductor CMU Carnegie Mellon University CNC computer numerically controlled CO carbon monoxide CO2 carbon dioxide COIL chemical oxygen iodine laser CPV concentrating photovoltaic CRI Color Rendering Index CSP concentrating solar power CT computed tomography CTE coefficient of thermal expansion CVD chemical vapor deposition DARPA Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency DAS distributed acoustic sensing DC direct current DHS Department of Homeland Security DLP digital light processor DNA deoxyribonucleic acid DOD Department of Defense DOE Department of Energy DPP discharge-produced plasma DPSK differential phase-shift keying DQPSK differential quadrature phase-shift keying DR diabetic retinopathy DSO Defense Sciences Office DSP digital signal processing ECE energy critical element ECOC European Conference on Optical Communication

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282 Optics and Photonics: Essential Technologies for O u r N at i o n EDFA erbium-doped fiber amplifier EE electrical engineering EECS electrical engineering and computer science EERE Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy EM electromagnetic EO electrooptical EPMD Electronics, Photonics, and Magnetic Devices (Division, NSF) ER emergency room EU European Union EUV extreme ultraviolet FACS flow cytometry FDI foreign direct investment flops floating point operations per second FOV field of view FPA focal plane array FPD flat panel display FTTH fiber to the home FY fiscal year GaAs gallium arsenide GFP green fluorescent protein GFR glomerular filtration rate GHz gigahertz GPS Global Positioning System GPT general-purpose technology HALOE halogen occultation experiment HAMR heat-assisted magnetic recording HDTV high-definition television HEL JTO High Energy Laser-Joint Technology Office HELLADS High Energy Liquid Laser Area Defense System HGP Human Genome Project HIV human immunodeficiency virus Ho:YAG holmium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet HT high-throughput IAD ion-assisted deposition IBS ion beam sputtering IC integrated circuit IEA International Energy Agency

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A pp e n d i x B 283 IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers IGZO indium gallium zinc oxide InAs indium arsenide InP indium phosphide IP intellectual property IPO initial public offering IQE internal quantum efficiency IR infrared IRR internal rate of return IRS Internal Revenue Service ISAT Information Science and Technology Board (DARPA) ISIS Integrated Sensor Is Structure (program) ISR intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance IT information technology ITAR International Traffic in Arms Regulations ITO indium tin oxide ITRS International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors IWGN Interagency Working Group of Nanotechnology JBSDS Joint Biological Stand-off Detection System JHPSSL Joint High Power Solid State Laser JTEC Japanese Technology Evaluation Center JTO Joint Technology Office LACOSTE Large Area Coverage Optical Search-while-Track and Engage LADAR laser radar LAN local area network LASIK laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis LCD liquid-crystal display LCM laser capture micro dissection LCOE levelized cost of energy LCoS liquid crystal on silicon LED light-emitting diode LELE litho-etch-litho-etch LENS™ Laser Engineered Net Shaping LEOS Lasers and Electro-Optics Society LFLE litho-freezing-litho-etch LIA Laser Institute of America LIDAR light detection and ranging LIGO Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory LISA Laser Interferometer Space Antenna

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284 Optics and Photonics: Essential Technologies for O u r N at i o n LLE litho-litho-etch LOCI Ladar and Optical Communications Institute LP linear polarization LPP laser-produced plasma MANPADS man portable air defense systems MDR multi-drug resistant MEMS microelectromechanical system MIMO multiple-input, multiple-output MIPS millions of instructions per second MIT Massachusetts Institute of Technology MLD Maritime Laser Demonstrator MOCVD metal-organic chemical vapor deposition MONET multiwavelength optical networking MOPA master oscillator power amplifier MOS metal oxide semiconductor MRF magnetorheological finishing MRI magnetic resonance imaging mRNA messenger ribonucleic acid MTHEL Mobile Tactical High Energy Laser MTO Microsystems Technology Office MWIR mid-wavelength infrared NA numerical aperture NAE National Academy of Engineering NAICS North American Industry Classification System NAS National Academy of Sciences NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization NCI National Cancer Institute Nd:YAG neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet NEI National Eye Institute NHLBI National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute NIH National Institutes of Health NIST National Institute of Standards and Technology NMMB National Materials and Manufacturing Board NNAP National Nanotechnology Advisory Panel NNI National Nanotechnology Initiative NRC National Research Council NRDA Nanotechnology Research and Development Act NREL National Renewable Energy Laboratory

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A pp e n d i x B 285 NSE nanoscale science and engineering NSET Nanoscale Science, Engineering, and Technology NSF National Science Foundation NVCA National Venture Capital Association OADM optical add/drop multiplexer OAI off-axis illumination OCT optical coherence tomography OFC Optical Fiber Communications Conference OFDM orthogonal frequency division multiplexing OIDA Optoelectronics Industry Development Association OITDA Optoelectronics Industry and Technology Development Association OLED organic light-emitting diode ONR Office of Naval Research OOK on-off keying OPC optical proximity correction OSA Optical Society of America OSE optical science and engineering OSTP Office of Science and Technology Policy PC personal computer PCAST President’s Council of Advisors on Science and Technology PCF photonic-crystal fiber PCR polymerase chain reaction PDM polarization division multiplexed PhC photonic crystal PIC photonic integrated circuit PISA Program for International Student Assessment PON passive optical network PRK photorefractive keratectomy PSA prostate-specific antigen PSK phase-shift keying PSM phase-shifting masks PV photovoltaic PVOCT phase variance optical coherence tomography QAM quadrature-amplitude-modulation QCMC quantum communication, measurement, and computing QCSE Quantum-Confined Stark Effect
 QD quantum dot

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286 Optics and Photonics: Essential Technologies for O u r N at i o n QELS quantum electronics and laser science QKD quantum key distribution QPSK quadrature-phase-shift-keying QW quantum well R&D research and development RCA Radio Corporation of America RET resolution enhancement technology RF radio frequency RGB red green blue RIN relative intensity noise RMS root mean square RNA ribonucleic acid ROADM reconfigurable optical add/drop multiplexer RT-PCR real-time polymerase chain reaction S&T science and technology SAIL Synthetic Aperture Imaging Ladar SAM Solar Advisor Model SAR synthetic aperture radar SBIR Small Business Innovation Research SBS synthesis-based sequencing SDM space division multiplexing SEMATECH Semiconductor Manufacturing Technology SEMI Semiconductor Equipment and Materials International SIC Standard Industrial Classification SIM sensing, imaging, and metrology SLS selective laser sintering SOP state of polarization SPDT single-point diamond turning SPIE International Society for Optics and Photonics SRC Semiconductor Research Corporation SS solid state STEM science, technology, engineering, and mathematics SWaP size, weight, and power TFPV thin-film photovoltaics TFT thin-film transistor THEL Tactical High Energy Laser TIP Technology Innovation Program

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A pp e n d i x B 287 UAV unmanned aerial vehicle UNCTAD United Nations Conference on Trade and Development UNESCO United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization UNIDO United Nations Industrial Development Organization USPTO U.S. Patent and Trademark Office UV ultraviolet VCSEL vertical cavity surface emitting laser WDM wavelength division multiplexing YAG yttrium aluminum garnet