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NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance.

This study was supported by Contract No. ECCS-1041156 between the National Academy of Sciences and the National Science Foundation, and by the following awards: #N66001-10-1-4052 from DARPA-DSO; #N66001-11-1-4091 from DARPA-MTO; #60NANB10D266 from NIST; #W911NF-10-1-0488 from ARO; #DE-DT0002194,TO#16 from DOE-EERE; and #DE-SC0005899 from DOE-BES, as well as support from SPIE, OSA, and the NRC. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project.

International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-26377-1
International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-26377-8
Library of Congress Control Number: 2012954592

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