Paula A. Braveman is professor of family and community medicine and director of the Center on Social Disparities in Health at the University of California, San Francisco. Her research has focused on measuring, documenting, and understanding socioeconomic and racial/ethnic disparities in health, particularly in maternal and infant health. She collaborates extensively with local, state, federal, and international health agencies to support the translation of research into policies and programs. She serves on the Advisory Council of the National Institute for Minority Health and Health Disparities of the National Institutes of Health and in an advisory capacity to several federal agencies regarding research on social inequalities in health. She is a member of the Institute of Medicine. She holds an M.D. from the University of California, San Francisco and an M.P.H. in epidemiology from the University of California, Berkeley.

Kaare Christensen is professor of epidemiology at the University of Southern Denmark and senior research scientist in the Department of Public Policy Studies at Duke University. His research is focused on genetic epidemiology, twin studies, aging, age-related diseases, and fetal programming. He is engaged in interdisciplinary aging research combining methods from epidemiology, genetics, and demography. His recent work has covered divergent life expectancy trends in Denmark and Sweden, with some potential explanations, and genetic factors and adult mortality. He holds a D.M.Sc. from the University of Southern Denmark and an M.D. and a Ph.D. from Odense University.

Eileen M. Crimmins is the AARP chair in gerontology at the University of Southern California (USC). She leads the Center on Biodemography and Population Health, a joint endeavor of USC and the University of California, Los Angeles, and codirects the Network on Biological Risk sponsored by the National Institute on Aging. Her research focuses on the connections between social and environmental factors and life expectancy and other health outcomes. Much of her work has been on trends in mortality, morbidity, and healthy life expectancy. She is a recipient of the Kleemeier Award for Research from the Gerontological Society of America. She is a member of the Institute of Medicine, and a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. She holds an M.A. and a Ph.D. in demography, both from the University of Pennsylvania.

Ana V. Diez Roux is a professor of epidemiology and chair of the Department of Epidemiology at the School of Public Health at the University of Michigan, where she also directs the Center for Social Epidemiology and Population Health. Her research areas include social epidemiology, environmental health effects, urban health, psychosocial factors in health, health

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