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Index A infectious diseases, 47, 61 health disadvantage, 232 Access to care HIV infection, 61, 70, 153 and birth outcomes, 67 homicides, 75-76, 87 clinician consultation rates, 112, 115 injuries, 2, 56, 71, 75-78, 87 continuity of care, 115-116, 132 life-course perspective, 5, 70, 99, 102, cost-related barriers, 4, 106-107, 112, 138-139 113, 114, 132 mental illness, 71, 74-75 critical care, 116 mortality rates, 60, 70-71, 255 decommodification, 113 obesity/overweight, 58, 61, 70, 71, 236 facilities (beds), 106, 116-117, 133 pregnancy, 2, 61, 66, 67, 70, 71, 73-74, geographic factors, 115, 120-121 87, 89, 102, 134, 152, 153, 159, insurance coverage, 3, 4, 12, 36, 41, 91, 187, 236, 269, 270, 273, 275, 277, 96, 106, 107, 109-110, 112, 117, 288, 371 119, 120, 131, 132, 134, 165, 207, probability of dying between ages 15 209, 222, 269, 274, 277, 285, 289, and 50, 44-45 371 sexual practices, 2, 4, 5, 71, 74, 87, 134, long-term care, 116-117 152, 153, 154, 169, 187, 224, 233, medical care, 112-117 236, 273, 274, 277, 288 physician/clinician shortages, 106, 110, sexually transmitted infections, 2, 71, 116, 132, 135 74, 87, 134, 154, 169, 187, 236, primary care, 4, 106, 110, 115-116, 273, 277, 288 132, 207, 274, 277, 352, 361, 374 social policies for, 233 public health services, 4, 111 suicide, 61, 78 timeliness of care, 117 tobacco use, 58, 99, 138-139, 236 Adolescence transportation-related injuries, 2, 69, 75, chronic diseases, 71 76, 87, 150 developmental accomplishments, 70 U.S. health disadvantage, 70-71 drug and alcohol abuse, 58, 151 violent behavior, 2, 75, 77, 78, 156 environmental considerations, 198, 233 379

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380 INDEX Adults (see Age 50; Maturity (age 50+); life-course perspective, 89, 186, 232-233 Middle adulthood (ages 35-49); low birth weight, 2, 30, 60 n.6, 61, 63, Young adulthood (ages 20-34)) 65, 66, 67, 69 n.8, 73, 87, 89, 134, Age 50 140, 186, 205, 213-214, 217, 232- cardiovascular risk, 3, 88 233, 273, 276, 290 n.6 health outcomes, 80-82 maternal characteristics and, 69, 73, 89, life expectancy at, 12, 36-37, 41, 82, 84, 140 87 medical care and, 110 survival to, 41-46, 47 peer country comparisons, 65-66, 67-69, Air pollution, 133, 194, 199-200, 204 134, 190, 213-214, 215, 216, 217, Alcohol (see Drug and alcohol use) 273 American Community Survey, 242 political and social regimes and, 213- Anxiety disorders, 74, 86, 190 214, 215, 216, 217 Arthritis, 3, 31, 38, 84, 88 poverty and, 67 Asthma, 5, 28, 36, 69, 72, 84, 88, 124, premature births, 30, 66, 276 125, 133, 205, 233, 250, 276 prevention, 208 Australia, 11, 95 n.1, 115, 118, 123-124, research needs, 268, 289 129, 135, 151, 156 n.18, 172, 182- stillbirths, 61, 63, 65-66 183, 194, 195 n.5, 227, 229, 234 tobacco use and, 140 (see also Peer country comparisons) trends, 216 Austria, 95 n.1, 118, 145, 148, 216, Blacks (see also Racial and ethnic 219, 221 (see also Peer country minorities) comparisons) birth outcomes, 68-69 life expectancy, 40-41 Blood pressure, 3, 37, 62-63, 64, 78, 83, B 89, 93, 109 n.3, 122, 132, 139, 350, 351 (see also Hypertension) Behavioral factors (see also specific Born in Bradford, UK, 264 behaviors) Brazil, 34, 65 n.7, 194, 234 cardiovascular disease, 16-17, 58, 138, Breast cancer, 31, 130 144, 146, 147, 150, 159 Breastfeeding, 60, 67, 144 n.4, 145-146, life-course perspective, 102 281, 363 social-ecological framework, 97-99, 104 British Cohort Study, 264 television, advertising, and other media Brookings Institution, 183 influences, 97 Built environment, 5, 194-195, 205, 207, and U.S. health disparity, 5 222, 232, 253 Behavioral Risk Factor and Surveillance System (BRFSS) survey, 150 n.13, 156 n.18, 242, 259-260, 261, 265 C Belgium, 26 n.2, 145, 180, 183-184, 216, 221 (see also Peer country Canada, 11, 21, 36, 40, 65 n.7, 74, 84, 95, comparisons) 115, 116, 122, 123-124, 127, 151, Bipolar disorder, 31, 38, 85, 86 152, 177, 183, 184, 194 (see also Birth outcomes, adverse Peer country comparisons) data sources, 250 Cancer (see also specific cancers) drug and alcohol use and, 149 behavioral factors, 138, 139, 140, 141- health objectives, 276 142, 144, 147, 149, 152, 209, 221, infant mortality rates, 2, 9, 40, 58, 60, 250 n.2 61, 65-66, 67-68, 69, 73, 87, 89, epigenetic effects, 170 110, 134, 140, 186, 190, 208, 213- incidence, 34 214, 215, 216, 217, 232-233, 250, life-course perspective, 101 254, 268, 273, 275, 276, 289 mortality rates, 14, 28, 34, 38, 89

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INDEX 381 premature death, 50 Children (ages 1-19) prevalence, 84, 85, 88 health status, 9, 60-65 prevention, 107 n.1, 352, 372 in poverty, 4, 5-6, 26 n.2, 67, 101, 172, registry systems, 130 n.21 174, 185, 186, 188, 189-190, 233, screening tests, 88, 107 n.1, 108, 109, 274, 285, 290 118-119, 124, 130, 132, 135 protective factors, 70 survival rates, 124, 132 Chile, 26 n.3, 112, 172, 176 n.15 Cardiovascular disease China, 65 n.7, 180, 243 ages 35-49 years, 47, 58, 83 Chlamydia, 74, 87, 152, 277, 371 ages 51-64 years, 84-85, 88 Cholesterol, serum, 3, 62, 63, 64, 78, 84, ages 65+ years, 84 122, 350 behavioral factors, 16-17, 58, 138, 144, Chronic illness (see also Noncommunicable 146, 147, 150, 159 diseases; specific diseases) case-fatality rates, 122-123 achieving treatment targets, 119, 122 environmental factors, 203-204 case fatality rates, 122-124 ischemic heart disease, 3, 26, 31, 34, 38, environmental factors, 133 88, 125 prevalence, 9, 84-85 life-course perspective, 16-17, 58, 99, quality of care, 119, 122-126 101 years lost to disability, 80 medical care and, 109, 110, 122, 125, Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, 28, 133-134, 350 276 mental illness and, 85 Cigarette smoking (see Tobacco use) mortality trends, 3, 14, 26, 28, 31, 34, Colon cancer, 119 38, 47, 50, 58, 82 Colorectal cancer, 34, 144 national health objectives, 276 Commonwealth Fund obesity and, 58, 71, 146, 159 Commission on a High Performance peer country comparison, 3, 26, 59, 82, System, 106, 119, 126, 137 83, 84, 87, 88, 89, 134, 272 national scorecard, 137 physical inactivity and, 84-85, 147 surveys, 112, 116, 117, 126, 127, 128- prevalence, 36, 82, 84-85, 89 129, 131, 135, 136, 251 sex differences, 83 Congenital anomalies, 29, 31, 32, 38 years lost to disability, 59 Coronary artery disease, 99, 109, 140 years of life lost before age 50, 52, 53, Croatia, 180 54, 55 Current Population Survey, 242 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Czech Republic, 115 n.10, 151, 172, 176, (CDC), 111, 255, 260, 261, 270, 180, 214 284 Cervical cancer, 34, 118, 119, 130 n.21, 152 D Charge to panel and study approach, 14-17 Danish National British Cohort, 264 Childhood (see also Adolescence; Early Data collection and sources (see also specific childhood) surveys) chronic illnesses, 69, 72-73 access to existing data sets, 258-259 HIV, 2, 87 age groups, 253-255 immunizations, 118 aging-related secondary analyses in the infectious diseases, 46-47 behavioral and social sciences, 243- injuries, 69, 75 247, 248 mortality rates, 60, 69, 70 challenges and opportunities, 136, 139, obesity and overweight, 3, 58, 61, 70, 255-262 71-72, 89, 149, 159, 225-226, 232, cross-national surveillance, 260-261 233, 284, 290, 353, 354

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382 INDEX demographic and socioeconomic data, obesity and, 36, 58, 71, 72, 84, 92, 144, 252 195 determinants of health, 251-255 physical environmental factors, 195-196, expanding current surveys, 5, 6, 7, 203-204 259-260 policies for children and families, 225 health outcomes, 250-251 premature death, 50 health systems, 108, 137, 251-252 prevalence, 3, 36, 72, 78, 80, 82, 84-85, international collaboration/ 87, 88, 275, 276, 290 harmonization, 5, 6, 7, 137, 248, quality of care, 122 255-258 research recommendations, 288 international sources, 242-249 by sex, 61, 62, 82 limitations of current data, 59-60, 118, testing, 133 132, 137 Dietary behaviors logistical challenges, 261 and birth outcomes, 67 mental illness, 251 data collection and sources, 139, 144, methodological challenges, 5, 6, 137, 252, 253, 262 139, 261-262 and diabetes, 144, 148, 159 mining currently available data, 265-266 environment and, 5, 97, 195, 198, 203- needs, 6-7, 249-262 204, 222 personal behaviors, 139, 252 and health, 144 physical environment, 253 and mortality rates, 96-97 physical illness, 250 National Prevention Council recommendations, 5-6, 7, 249, 262, 267 recommendations, 362-364 social environment, 253 and obesity, 144, 146, 159, 203 vital statistics, 250 prevalence of unhealthy practices, 4, Denmark, 31, 35 n.8, 37, 84, 123, 141-142, 144-146 180 n.21, 183, 184, 213 n.8 (see also protective factors, 144 Peer country comparisons) social factors, 162, 163-164 Dental health, 61, 64, 72-73, 109 trends, 144-145 Depression, 74, 85, 86, 102 n.8, 133, 134, and U.S. health disadvantage, 146 147, 233, 251, 374 Digestive diseases, 28, 38, 50, 52, 53 Determinants of health, 96-97 Disability, 3, 80, 85, 87, 88, 101, 134, 236, Diabetes 248, 257, 274, 275, 288 by age group, 61, 62, 64, 72, 78, 80, 81, Drownings, 28, 38, 51, 69, 149, 154, 158, 82, 84-85, 233 252 biological embedding, 101 Drug and alcohol use childhood, 72, 233, 290 adolescents, 58, 149 comorbidities, 83, 121, 136, 159 alcohol abuse, 4 diet and, 144, 148, 159 drug abuse, 4 early life behaviors and risk factors, 89, environmental factors, 5, 195, 196-197, 92, 101 204-205 environmental factors, 203-204 and health, 52, 149-150 epigenetic effects, 170 life-course perspective, 58, 101, 102 hospitalization rates, 124, 126, 135 maternal, 67 incidence, 123 mental and behavioral disorders, 51, life-course perspective, 101, 102, 103, 85 136, 159, 169, 225 mortality rate, 2, 88, 96-97, 204-205 medical care, 92, 110, 120, 122, 124, premature deaths, 51, 52, 53 130, 133, 134, 135, 277 prevalence, 4, 150-151 mental illness and, 85 National Prevention Council mortality rates, 28, 32, 38, 123, 138, 276 recommendations, 358-361

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INDEX 383 transportation-related accidents, 4, 5, and health insurance coverage, 5 133, 151, 154, 226-227 and injury, 226 and U.S. health disadvantage, 58, 151 life-course perspective and, 5, 58, 70, years of life affected, 85 78, 86 Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and mental health and, 86 Development Study, 264 and mortality, 189 Dutch Generation R Study, 264 prevalence, 182-183, 187, 188, 222 protection and benefits, 199, 211, 213, 217, 223, 236, 354 E social factors affecting, 97-98, 162, 164, 165, 166, 188, 235, 279 Early childhood (see also Childhood) and U.S. health disadvantage, 162, 236 education, 9, 176 workplace environment, 198-199 health outcomes, 61, 69-70 Endocrine disorders, 29, 31, 32, 38, 86 injuries, 69 England, 3, 12-13, 21, 39, 69, 72, 84, mortality rates, 68, 69, 87 89, 147 n.9, 148, 153 n.16, 187, Early Childhood Longitudinal Study 213 n.8, 261 (see also Peer country (ECLS), 265 comparisons; United Kingdom) Early Development Inventory, 253 English Longitudinal Study on Ageing Eating behaviors and disorders, 74, 145, (ELSA), 147 n.9, 242, 244, 248, 253, 159, 223, 281, 353, 354, 362-364 261 Economic considerations (see also Income Environmental factors or wealth; Poverty) and behaviors affecting health, 97 costs of illness and premature death, biological embedding, 101 89-90 in cardiovascular disease, 203-204 and U.S. health disadvantage, 3 in diabetes, 203-204 Education in drug-related deaths, 204-205 achievement on cognitive tests, 71, and health, 133, 193-199 179-182 in HIV risk, 204-205 attainment, 175 in homicides, 204-205 early childhood, 9, 176 in injuries, 204 college completion, 177-179 in obesity, 134, 195-196, 203-204, and health status, 6, 16, 67, 69, 71, 97, 233 165-166 National health objectives, 279 life-course perspective, 5, 70, 102 National Prevention Council and life expectancy, 40-41 recommendations, 347-349 maternal, 67, 69, 70, 71 other considerations, 198-199 and mortality rates, 69 peer country comparisons, 199-202 peer country comparisons, 4, 6 physical environment, 194-196, 199-200 policies, 8, 9, 19 social environment, 196-197, 200-201 secondary school completion, 176-177 spatial distribution of, 197-198, 201-202 social-ecological perspective, 97, 104 synergisms in, 204 years of schooling, 175 and U.S. health disadvantage, 203-205 Emerging economies in violence, 204-205 mortality rates, 26 n.4 Epigenetic effects, 101-102, 170, 270 Emerging Risk Factors Collaboration, 266 Erasmus University, 256 Employment/unemployment, 71 Estonia, 34, 59, 115 n.10, 156 n.19, 172, buffering health effects, 189, 199, 223, 180 280, 354 Étude Longitudinale Français Depuis education and, 165, 262 L’Enfance, 264 factors affecting health, 166, 198-199 European Investment Bank, 256

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384 INDEX European Observatory on Health Systems Health care (see also Access to care; and Policies, 256 Quality of care; specific diseases and European School Survey Project on Alcohol conditions) and Other Drugs, 150 acute, episodic model, 108 Eurothine project, 256-257 barriers to, 109-110 decommodification, 113 environmental factors, 97 F expenditures, 4, 89, 110-111, 112, 122, 189 Falls, 29, 51, 147, 149, 154, 158, 252, 282, long-term care, 116-117, 132 367 and mortality rates, 109, 110 Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco overutilization, 110 Control Act, 281 policies, 108 Finland, 26, 31, 32, 72, 95 n.1, 118, 123, preventive, 107, 109 155, 156 n.19, 175 n.14, 176-177, screening, 3, 34 n.7, 88, 107 n.1, 108, 109, 180 n.21, 181, 183, 213 n.8, 227 118-119, 124, 129, 132, 134, 135, (see also Peer country comparisons) 350, 352, 358, 361, 369, 371, 374 Fire-related injuries, 28, 38, 51, 69, 154, Health disadvantage of United States (see 210, 252 also Peer country comparisons) Firearms, 4, 5, 33, 34, 75, 78 n.18, 133, behavior and, 4, 96 (see Behavioral 134, 154, 156-157, 158, 159, 205, factors; individual health behaviors) 207, 210, 221, 222, 225, 233, 252, cost of inaction, 9 269, 274, 279 defined, 11 n.1, 57 Framingham Heart Study, 264 domains, 134 France, 38, 55, 74, 84, 115, 118, 141-142, dynamic and synergistic interactions, 145, 146, 148, 150, 152-153, 182- 91-93, 105 183, 184, 187, 194, 200, 219, 221, environmental factors, 193-199 227, 229, 235, 264 (see also Peer global trends and, 289-291 country comparisons) health system deficiencies and, 4, 13-14, 96, 132-137 life-course perspective, 9, 58, 59-60, G 61-64, 69-70 Genitourinary diseases, 29, 31, 32, 38, 50, measuring, 58, 59 153 physical inactivity and, 148-149 Germany, 75, 145, 148, 150, 183-184, 189, poverty and, 67, 162, 164-165, 169, 200, 203, 210, 216, 219, 221, 227 186, 188, 207, 275 Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and racial/ethnic minority health status and, Risk Factors Study, 50, 59 1, 12-13, 43, 68-69, 71, 161, 162, Gonorrhea, 74, 87, 152, 277 167-168, 170, 185 n.26, 193, 261 Growing Up in Australia, 264 recommendations for elimination, Growing Up in Scotland, 264 354-356 Guns (see Firearms) self-rated, 37, 89 social-ecological influences, 98-99, 104 structure of report, 18-19 H topics beyond scope, 17-18 within-country disparities, 35, 41, 59, 99 Health and Retirement Study (HRS), 147 Health insurance coverage, 3, 4, 12, 36, n.9, 242, 244, 248, 253, 261 41, 91, 96, 106, 107, 109-110, 112, Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children 117, 119, 120, 131, 132, 134, 165, (HBSC) survey, 148, 153, 260, 266 207, 209, 222, 269, 274, 277, 285, 289, 371

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INDEX 385 Health systems (see also Public health Human Mortality Database, 26 n.2, 35 n.8 systems and policies) Human papilloma virus, 101, 152 centralized, 108 Hungary, 172, 176, 178 n.19, 214 defined, 107-109 Hypertension, 31, 36, 37, 38, 82, 84-85, effectiveness, 109-110 93, 101, 119-120, 122, 144, 168, fragmentation, 4, 13, 107, 111, 127, 276, 351 132, 137, 209, 222, 231, 261, 274 peer country comparisons, 108, 110- 131, 135 I strengths of U.S. system, 132 Immigrants, 3, 12, 168, 186, 187, 197 and U.S. health disadvantage, 4, 13-14, Incarceration, 184 96, 132-137 Income or wealth (see also Poverty) Healthy People 2020, 98, 275, 276-279 education and, 165, 167, 169-170, 187 Heart disease, 3, 50 (see also and health, 17, 37, 84, 89, 161, 162, Cardiovascular disease) 163-165, 189, 190, 261, 268, 269, High-income countries (see also Peer 290 country comparisons; individual household, 3, 107, 167, 171, 185, 210 countries) household composition and, 167 defined, 26 n.2 inequality, 4, 162, 164, 165, 171, 172, HIV/AIDS, 2, 31, 34, 54, 55, 61, 70, 74, 175, 185, 190, 207, 208, 210, 215, 87, 101, 110, 134, 152, 153, 159, 218, 222, 290 169, 187, 205, 269, 276, 288, 353, insurance premiums, 107 370, 371, 373 life-course perspective, 101, 102 Homelessness, 183-184 and medical care, 112, 133, 137, 164, Homicides 165 by age group, 2, 9, 69, 75-76, 80, 87 and mortality, 163 alcohol and drug use and, 52, 53, 149- peer country comparisons, 3, 171-172, 150, 151, 233 175, 185, 207, 208 environmental factors, 204-205 poverty level, 171-172, 173, 189-190 firearms-related, 33, 34, 75, 157, 158 public and social policies and, 210, 213, n.22, 205, 252, 269 215, 217, 218, 234, 235 life-course perspective, 100, 102-103, race/ethnicity and, 167 169, 187, 200 research needs, 268, 269 medical care and, 106, 110, 119 residential segregation by, 195-196, 201- mental illness and, 85-86 202, 204-205, 222 national health objectives, 275, 276, 287 and social mobility, 169-170 premature death, 50, 52, 54, 55, 87, and social status, 166 133, 134 surveys, 252, 259 rates, 2, 33-34 transfers, 188-189, 190, 195-196, 234, research recommendations, 288 235 sex and, 50-51 and unhealthy behaviors, 160, 163-164 Hong Kong, 180, 214, 220 Individual health behaviors (see also Hospitals/hospitalizations Behavioral factors; Dietary behaviors; ambulatory care-sensitive conditions, Drug and alcohol use; Physical 124, 125, 126, 133, 135 inactivity; Tobacco use; specific beds, 116 behaviors) discharge planning, 132 Infancy (see also Birth outcomes, adverse) and mortality rates, 132 infectious diseases, 46-47 readmission rates, 124, 132 injuries, 69 Household composition, 167, 184

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386 INDEX mortality rates, 2, 9, 40, 58, 60, 61, J 65-66, 67-68, 69, 73, 87, 89, 110, 134, 140, 186, 190, 208, 213-214, Japan, 2, 3, 11, 12, 21, 31, 35, 36-37, 39, 215, 216, 217, 232-233, 250, 254, 40, 55, 69, 84, 88, 115, 123, 141- 268, 273, 275, 276, 289 142, 150, 172, 180, 181, 182-183, Infectious diseases (see also specific diseases) 184, 220 (see also Peer country life-course perspective, 101 comparisons) mortality rates, 26, 27, 30-31, 32, 34, 38 and years of life lost before age 50, K 46-47, 50, 52, 53, 54, 55 Kazakhstan, 180 Injuries (see also specific causes) Korea, 26 n.2, 172, 175, 176-177, 178 age and, 32, 69, 75-79, 80 n.19, 180, 181, 194, 214, 216, 220, environmental factors, 204 234, 244 firearms-related, 4, 5, 33, 34, 75, 78 n.18, 133, 134, 154, 156-157, 158, 159, 205, 207, 210, 221, 222, 225, L 233, 252, 269, 274, 279 and health care, 110 Latvia, 180 intentional, 29-30, 33-34, 38, 50-51, Lead exposures, 107 n.1, 194 52, 53, 55-56, 58, 69, 75, 77, 78, Liechtenstein, 180 87 Life-course perspective mortality rates, 29-30, 32-34, 38, 56, adolescent health, 5, 70, 99, 102 58, 69, 75, 80, 87 adverse experiences and stimuli, 5, 101, National Prevention Council 102 recommendations, 366-368 biological embedding, 101 obesity and, 147 biological exposures, 101 premature deaths, 50-51, 52, 53, 55-56, birth outcomes, 89, 186, 232-233 87 cardiovascular disease, 16-17, 58, 99, unintentional, 29, 32, 51, 52, 53, 55-56, 101, 103 58, 69, 75, 76, 78-79, 80, 87 causal pathways, 5, 9, 101-103 years of life lost before age 50, 87 child development trajectory, 9, 69-70, Injurious behaviors (see also specific 100, 101, 102 behaviors) defined, 96 and health, 154 developmental plasticity, 100, 101 prevalence of unhealthy practices, diabetes, 101, 102, 103, 136, 159, 169, 154-158 225 and U.S. health disadvantage, 158 drug and alcohol abuse, 58, 101, 102 Integrated Health Interview Series, 249 education, 5, 70, 102 International Physical Activity employment, 5, 58, 70, 78, 86 Questionnaire, 252 n.4 epigenetic effects, 101-102, 170, 270 Ireland, 125, 180, 184, 216, 234, 235 (see health, 58, 59-60, 61-64, 69-70, 99-104 also Peer country comparisons) income, 101, 102 Ischemic heart disease, 3, 26, 31, 34, 38, mental illness, 89, 102 88, 125 methodological approaches, 103-104 Ischemic stroke, 123, 132, 133-134, 135 obesity/overweight, 71, 89, 101, 102, Italy, 12, 36, 84, 145, 148, 150, 151, 175 103, 159, 225-226, 232 n.14, 182-184, 194, 216, 219, 221 period effects, 103 (see also Peer country comparisons) poverty, 99, 101, 162, 164-165, 170, 262, 285, 290

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INDEX 387 on public policies, 99 education, 67, 71 sexual practices, 102 health status, 66, 71, 80 social factors, 169-170 life-course perspective, 89 tobacco use, 58, 99, 102, 103, 138-139 mortality rates, 30, 38, 47, 62, 80 violence, 102 premature deaths, 53 Life expectancy Maturity (age 50+) at age 50, 12, 36-37, 41, 82, 84, 87 cardiovascular risk, 83 at age 65+, 39 health outcomes, 82-85 at ages 80-95, 39 mortality trends, 12 at birth, 12, 37, 39, 42, 43, 54-56, 87 Measurement and Evidence Knowledge and economic growth, 90 Network, 103, 237 health systems and, 135 Mental illness (see also specific conditions) obesity and, 41, 146, 290 n.6 life-course perspective, 89, 102 peer country comparisons, 2, 12, 35-41, medication use, 75 42, 43, 56, 87 National Prevention Council political model and, 213-214 recommendations, 372-374 premature death and, 3, 52, 54-56 and physical health risk, 85, 86 public health policies and, 109 prevalence, 86, 88 race/ethnicity and, 40-41 screening for, 134, 374 self-reported health and, 37 and self-reported health, 37 by sex, 2, 3, 35, 37, 39, 40, 42, 43, U.S. disadvantage, 85-86 55-56, 88 Mexico, 26 n.2-4, 32, 36, 59 n.2, 65 n.7, trends, 1, 35 112, 115 n.10, 172, 176, 216, 234 socioeconomic status and, 41 Middle adulthood (ages 35-49) within-country disparities, 35, 40-41 diabetes, 62 Lipid disorders, 36, 37, 89, 107 n.1, 109 health status, 62-63, 80 n.3, 119-120, 132, 139, 144, 350 infectious diseases, 47 London School of Economics and Political injuries, 80 Science, 256 obesity, 80 London School of Hygiene and Tropical Migration (see Immigrants) Medicine, 256 Millennium Cohort Studies, 264 Low birth weight, 2, 30, 60 n.6, 61, 63, 65, Morbidity (see also Chronic 66, 67, 69 n.8, 73, 87, 89, 134, 140, illness; Infectious diseases; 186, 205, 213-214, 217, 232-233, Noncommunicable diseases; specific 273, 276, 290 n.6 diseases) Lung cancer, 31, 38, 141, 142 n.2, 221 prevalence rates, 34, 36-37 Lung disease, chronic, 3, 28, 84, 85, 87, 88, Mortality rates (see also specific diseases 102 n.8, 134, 140, 170, 221, 236, and conditions) 274, 275, 276, 288 age and, 34, 42-46, 48, 49, 56, 58, 59, Luxembourg Income Study, 215, 245, 60, 61, 62, 65, 80 (see also specific 258-259 life stage groups) below-average (U.S. health advantage), 38 M by cause, 26-35, 38, 57-58, 59 data source, 25 Marital and family status, 67 defined, 25 Maternal and Child Health Life Course medical care and, 109, 110 Research Network, 253 premature death, 12, 34, 56 Maternal conditions race/ethnicity and, 40-41, 43, 56, 69 behavioral factors, 67 by sex, 32, 34, 42, 44, 45, 46, 47, 49, and birth outcomes, 67, 71 56, 71, 87

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388 INDEX socioeconomic status and, 69 injury- and violence-free living, 366-368 trends, 67 mental and emotional well-being, Motor vehicle crashes (see Transportation- 372-374 related injuries) preventive services, 349-352 Musculoskeletal diseases, 29, 31, 38 reproductive and sexual health, 369-372 Myocardial infarction, 84, 122, 123, 124, substance abuse prevention, 358-361 132, 133-134, 139, 250, 350 tobacco-free living, 356-358 National security considerations, 89 National Study of Health and Development, N 264 National Survey of Family Growth, 153, National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey 268 n.10 (NAMCS), 242 National Trauma Data Bank, 120 National Center for Health Statistics, 7, Native Americans, 41 249, 257, 260, 261 Neonatal mortality, 61, 63 National Child Development Study, 264 Netherlands, 75, 84, 118, 129, 135, 141- National Children’s Study, 264, 270-271 142, 145, 148, 175 n.14, 180 n.21, National Death Index, 265 184, 194, 235 (see also Peer country National Health and Nutrition Examination comparisons) Survey (NHANES), 59, 82, 83, 242, Neuropsychiatric diseases/conditions, 28, 259-260, 265 31, 32, 38, 52, 53, 85 (see also National Health Interview Survey, 141, 242, Mental illness) 249 New Zealand, 11, 115 n.7, 123-124, 129, National health objectives 147, 151, 172, 175 n.14, 180, 202, behavioral changes, 278-279 216, 234, 264 (see also Peer country environmental factors, 279 comparisons) Healthy People 2020, 98, 275, 276-279 Noncommunicable diseases (see also public health and medical care systems, Chronic illness; individual diseases) 277-278 mortality rates, 26, 27, 28-29, 38 life expectancy and health, 276-277 and years of life lost before age 50, 52, recommendation, 275 53, 54, 55, 56 social factors, 279 Norway, 72, 95 n.1, 112, 123, 129, 148, Surgeon General’s National Prevention 155, 175 n.14, 183, 187 (see also Council recommendations, 275, Peer country comparisons) 279-282 Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort, 264 National Institute on Aging, 242, 248 Nutritional deficiencies, 30, 31, 38, 50, 52, National Institutes of Health (NIH), 1, 7, 53, 101 8, 14, 242, 248, 249, 255, 262, 263, 267, 270, 271, 285 n.2, 286 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, O 260, 268 National Longitudinal Surveys, 264 Obesity and overweight National Maternal and Infant Health age and, 78, 79-80, 82, 84 Survey (NMIHS), 266 causality, 5, 19, 139 National Prevention Council childhood, 3, 58, 61, 70, 71-72, 89, recommendations 149, 159, 225-226, 232, 233, 284, active living, 364-366 290, 353, 354 community environments, 347-349 diabetes and, 36, 58, 71, 72, 84, 89, 92, eating healthy, 362-364 144, 195 empowered people, 352-354 dietary behaviors and, 144, 146, 203 health disparity elimination, 354-356 education and, 71, 102

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INDEX 389 environmental factors, 134, 195-196, cancer, 89 203-204, 233 cardiovascular disease, 3, 26, 59, 82, 83, epigenetic effects, 170 84, 87, 88, 89, 134, 272 health promotion, 118, 134 communicable diseases, 27, 30-31, 34, health threat, 3, 13, 16-17, 71, 121, 147 74 and injury, 147 criteria for designation as, 26 n.2 life-course perspective, 71, 89, 101, 102, defined, 1-2 103, 159, 225-226, 232 dietary behaviors, 145-146 and life expectancy, 41, 146, 290 n.6 drug and alcohol abuse, 2, 88, 150-151 and mortality trends, 14 environmental factors, 199-202 national security and economic health indicators by age group, range, considerations, 89 and rank, 61-64 period effects, 103 health systems, 5-6, 108, 110-131, physical activity levels and, 139, 147, 135-137 149, 159, 203 HIV/AIDS, 2, 34 n.5, 87 policy implications, 225, 236, 275, 276, injuries, 29-30, 76-78, 154-158 284, 287 life expectancy, 2, 12, 35-41, 42, 43, 56, prevalence, 3, 36, 37, 41, 70, 71, 78, 87 79-80, 82, 84, 89, 290 lung disease, 3, 88 prevention, 225, 276, 284, 353, 354 methodologies, 49-50 race/ethnicity and, 71 morbidity, 36-37 research needs, 269, 288 mortality rates, 12, 26-35, 38, 39, sex differences, 71, 79-80 42-43, 48, 49, 56, 60, 61, 62, 65, social factors, 196 67-68, 70-71, 80 OECD (see also Peer country comparisons; noncommunicable diseases, 27, 28-29, individual countries) 72-73, 81, 83, 89 data collection and harmonization, 26, obesity/overweight, 3, 13, 36, 41, 72, 59, 256 79-80, 89 member countries, 26 n.3, 65 physical inactivity, 147-148 Programme for International Student policies and social values, 211-219 Assessment, 180, 181, 182 poverty, 4, 171-172, 173-174, 185, 190, recommendations for, 7 207-208, 222, 274 Older adults (age 65+), 39, 118 premature deaths, 50, 51, 54, 55 Ontogeny, 100 ranking methods, 136 Oral and dental health/conditions, 29, 38, sexual practices, high-risk, 152-153 72-73, 352 sexually transmitted diseases, 2, 87 Oral contraceptives, 134, 152, 153, 160, social factors, 170-185 278 social programs, 234-236 Organ transplants, 124-126 suicide, 89 survival to age 50, 42-46, 47, 56 tobacco use, 141-143 P transportation-related accidents, 33, 155-156 Panel Study of Income Dynamics, 246, 264 violence, 156-158 Particulate matter, 194, 200 within-U.S. disparities, 35, 40-41, 59, 99 Peer country comparisons (see also “years behind” concept, 44-45 individual countries) Perinatal conditions, 52, 53, 54, 55, 61, 63, adolescent pregnancy, 2, 73, 87 65-66 birth outcomes, adverse, 65-66, 67-69, mortality rates, 30-31, 32, 38 134, 190, 213-214, 215, 216, 217, Period effects, 103 273

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390 INDEX Physical environment, health impacts, 5, Portugal, 31, 34 n.5, 60, 174, 175 n.14, 194-196, 199-200 188, 201, 214 (see also Peer country Physical inactivity comparisons) data collection/measurement, 139 Poverty environmental factors, 5, 195 absolute rates, 171-172 and health, 84-85, 139, 147 and birth outcomes, 67 and mortality rates, 96-97 child, 4, 5-6, 26 n.2, 67, 101, 172, 174, and obesity, 139, 147, 149, 159, 203 185, 186, 188, 189-190, 233, 274, prevalence, 147-148 285, 290 recommendations for active living, disposable income rates, 189-190 364-366 emerging economies, 26 n.2 and U.S. health disadvantage, 148-149 and health, 37, 67, 162, 164-165, 169, Poisoning, 29, 38, 51, 107 n.1, 149, 151, 186, 188, 207, 275 154, 158, 252 and health insurance coverage, 6 Poland, 115 n.7, 147-148, 172, 176, 178 Healthy People 2020 objectives, 279 n.19, 180, 188 life-course perspective, 99, 101, 162, Policies affecting health 164-165, 170, 262, 285, 290 Anglo-Saxon/liberal model, 211-213, older adults, 186 214, 216 peer country comparisons, 4, 171-172, birth control, 210, 221, 224 173-174, 185, 190, 207-208, 222, for children and families, 9, 217-218, 274 225-233, 234 public policies and social values, 6, 171, corporatist model, 216 188, 189, 207-208, 215, 222, 233, drug and alcohol control, 210 236 education-related, 8, 9, 19, 210, racial and ethnic minorities, 6, 12 234-235 rates, 4, 171, 185, 285, 290 exploring innovative options, 286-289 research needs, 262, 265, 269, 270 firearms availability, 210, 221, 225 safety net programs, 4, 93, 163, 185 food industry/dietary, 210, 225 n.26, 188-190, 210, 220, 231, 236 health care, 209, 222, 234 social factors interacting with, 167, 169, implications for U.S. health 170, 188, 200-201, 269, 285 disadvantage, 6, 236-238 trends, 171, 172, 190 income-related, 210, 213, 215, 217, Pregnancy 218, 234, 235 adolescent, 2, 61, 66, 67, 70, 71, 73-74, physical environment, 210 87, 89, 102, 134, 152, 153, 159, political models and, 211-219 187, 236, 269, 270, 273, 275, 277, product safety, 210 288, 371 recommendations relating to, 7-8, 9, unintended, 102, 151, 152, 263, 278, 275, 283, 286 352, 354, 373 role of, 209-210 Premature birth, 30, 66, 276 social democratic model, 213, 215, 216, Premature death 218-219, 221, 220-221 causes, 48-54, 55, 109-110 social-ecological framework, 97-98, 104 and life expectancy at birth, 3, 54-56 social services, 4, 93, 163, 185 n.26, 188- sex differences, 3, 50-51, 52, 53 190, 210, 220, 231, 234, 235, 236 Preventive services, National Prevention societal values and, 208-209, 219-225 Council recommendations, 349-352 spending on social programs, 215-217, Primary care, 4, 106, 110, 115-116, 128, 233-236 129, 132-133, 136, 207, 251, 274, tobacco control, 140, 209-210, 225 277, 352, 361, 374 transportation safety, 210, 226-231, 284 Probability of living to age 50, 46, 47

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INDEX 391 Progress in International Reading Literacy proxies measures, 117-118, 124-126 Study (PIRLS), 179 public health services, 117-118 Prostate cancer, 119 screening tests, 118-119 Public awareness, 283-286 Public Health Accreditation Board, 251 Public health system and policies R access to services, 4, 111, 251 Racial and ethnic minorities accomplishments and benefits, 109, 140, birth outcomes, 68-69 215, 227-228, 233, 236, 273 economic costs of health inequalities and defined, 107, 108 n.2 premature death, 90 essential services, 117 n.12 education, 188 expenditures/budget, 111, 189, 234, environmental factors, 193, 207 251, 283 health disparities, 1, 12-13, 43, 68-69, fragmentation, 132, 222, 231, 261, 274 71, 161, 162, 167-168, 170, 185 funding, 234 n.26, 193, 261 Healthy People 2020 objectives, health insurance coverage, 12 277-278 social inequalities, 6, 12, 163, 168, 186, and life expectancy, 109, 273 188 quality of services, 117-118, 251, 252, Recommendations (see also 254-255 National Prevention Council social values and, 219, 223, 224, 286 recommendations) strengthening, 6, 8, 9, 236, 348, 349, 354 analytic review of policies, 8, 9, 286 Public policies (see Policies affecting health) data collection and research, 5-6, 7-8, 249, 262, 267 media and outreach campaign, 7-8, 283 Q national health objectives, 7, 8, 275 Quality of care Reproductive and sexual health (see also acute/trauma care, 119, 120-121, 132, Pregnancy; Sexual practices) 133 National Prevention Council amenable mortality rates and, 125-126 recommendations, 369-372 case-fatality rates, 122-124, 135 Research agenda (see also Data collection case study, 120-121 and sources) chronic illness care, 119, 122-126, 132 analytic methods development, 5, 6, 7, Commonwealth Fund survey findings, 262-266 128-129 challenges/impediments, 270-272 coordination of care, 107-108, 110, 111, funding, 6-7, 270 112, 119, 127, 128, 130, 131, 133, innovative policy options, 286-289 134, 251, 280, 352 longitudinal research, 7, 263-265 delivery practices, 110, 127, 130-131 new lines of inquiry, 267-270 health promotion, 118 Residential segregation, 195-196, 197, 201- immunizations, 118 202, 204-205, 222 information technology and, 129, 130, Respiratory diseases, 28, 30, 31, 32, 38, 47, 132-133 50, 164 n.2, 194, 199 medical errors, 110, 117-118, 126-127, Rio Declaration on Social Determinants of 128, 130, 131, 149, 151, 262 Health, 257-258 miscommunications, 129, 130, 133 Robert Wood Johnson Foundation organ transplant outcomes, 124-125 Commission to Build a Healthier patient/physician satisfaction, 4, 112, America, 16, 98 127-128, 131 Russian Federation, 32, 34 n.5, 65 n.7, 74 primary care, 128, 129, 132-133, 136, n.12, 180 251

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392 INDEX S and health, 1, 3, 5, 67, 88, 101, 163- 170, 196-197, 200-201 Safety net programs, 4, 93, 163, 185 n.26, and life expectancy, 41 188-190, 210, 220, 231, 236 prevalence, 170-185 Schizophrenia, 31, 38, 85, 86 and U.S. health disadvantage, 3, 88, Scotland, 148, 151, 264 185-190 Self-rated health, 37, 89 Social mobility, 5-6, 162, 169-170, 183, Sex differences 185, 190, 207-208, 210, 220, 222, cardiovascular risks, 83 233, 236, 269, 279, 285, 290 health indicators, 61-63 Social participation, 196, 200-201, 253 obesity, 71, 79-80 Social status, 166 premature death, 50-51, 52, 53 Social support, 162, 197, 201 Sexual practices Societal values adolescents, 2, 4, 5, 71, 74, 87, 134, federalism, 224-225 153, 154, 169, 187, 224, 233, 236, free enterprise, 223 273, 274, 277, 288 individual freedom, 223 condom and contraceptive use, 5, 134, religion, 224 149, 152-153, 160, 271, 278, 286, and policies affecting health, 219-225 370 self-reliance, 223-224 data collection and sources, 252, 253 South Africa, 34, 65 n.7 drug and alcohol abuse and, 149 Spain, 78, 84, 145-146, 151, 153 n.16, environment and, 5, 97, 160, 169, 224 175, 188, 219 (see also Peer country and health, 152 comparisons) life-course perspective, 102 Stillbirths, 61, 63, 65-66 prevalence of high-risk practices, 4, Stress, 5, 86, 92, 99, 101, 102, 140 n.1, 152-153 160, 164, 168-169, 190, 197, 198, social values and, 224 205, 210, 232, 250 n.2, 251 and U.S. health disadvantage, 153-154 Stroke Sexually transmitted infections, 2, 31, 71, behavioral factors, 138, 140, 144, 147, 74, 87, 134, 151, 152, 154, 159, 149 169, 187, 236, 273, 275, 277, 282, mortality rate, 3, 34, 123, 132, 135, 208 288 n.1, 250 Singapore, 180, 214, 220 prevalence, 36, 82, 84-85, 88 Skin cancer, 31, 352 quality of care, 132, 133-134 Skin diseases, 29, 38 Suicide, 3, 34, 50, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 61 Slovak Republic, 115 n.10, 172, 176, 216, n.6, 64, 78, 80, 85, 89, 102, 133, 234 157, 205, 250 Slovenia, 26 n.4, 33, 115 n.10, 172, 176, Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement 180, 214 in Europe (SHARE), 59, 82, 83, 147 Smoking (see Tobacco use) n.9, 242, 247, 248, 253, 261 Social capital, 191, 196, 197, 200-201, 253, Survival to age 50, 41-46, 47 265 Sweden, 39, 47, 72, 74, 95 n.1, 112, 116, Social cohesion, 165, 167-168, 196, 197, 130 n.21, 135, 140, 147, 150, 152, 200-201, 210, 215 156 n.18, 182-183, 184, 187, 189- Social-ecological perspective, 96, 97-99, 104 190, 200, 213, 215, 227, 264 (see Social factors, adverse (see also specific also Peer country comparisons) factors) Switzerland, 31, 33, 35, 83, 135, 157 n.21, biological embedding, 101 173, 187, 234, 235 (see also Peer and birth outcomes, 67 country comparisons) environmental, 196-197, 200-201 Syphilis, 74, 87, 152, 369, 371

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INDEX 393 T mortality rates, 2, 29, 32-33, 69, 75-76, 80, 87, 106, 110, 118, 119, 154 Taiwan, 181, 214, 220, 246 peer country comparisons, 33 Terry, Luther, 140 political factors and public attitudes, Tobacco use 230-231 adolescents, 58, 70, 99, 138-139, 236 premature deaths, 51, 52, 53, 55 cessation/control interventions, 88, 103, prevention, 109, 117 n.11, 118, 154, 107 n.1, 118, 134, 160, 233, 236, 284 283 public policies and, 226-231, 284 and chronic disease, 82, 88, 109 n.3, seatbelts and child safety seats, 4, 5, 159 109, 155, 158, 207, 210, 226, 227, control policies, 103, 109, 140, 209- 228, 252, 274, 278 210, 221, 225, 236 speeding and speed control, 5, 227-230 data collection, 266 substance abuse and, 4, 5, 51, 133, 151, environment and, 160, 198, 204 n.15, 154, 156 n.18, 226-227 233 Transportation Research Board, 237, 260, and health disadvantage, 3, 4, 5, 16, 58, 288 141-143, 274, 275 Trends in International Mathematics and life-course perspective, 58, 99, 102, 103, Science Study (TIMSS), 180 138-139, 290 Tuberculosis, 31, 47, 111 n.5, 372 and life expectancy, 3, 41, 142, 143 Turkey, 26 n.3, 112, 172, 178 n.18, 188 maternal, 67, 159 mental illness and, 85 and mortality trends, 14, 88, 96-97, 109 U n.3, 141-143, 221 National Prevention Council Ukraine, 86 recommendations, 281, 356-358 UNCAM (French National Union of Health period effects, 103 Insurance Funds), 256 prevalence, 3, 118, 140-141, 160, 163, UNICEF, 59 290 United Kingdom, 3, 11, 16, 21, 40, 72, 74, race/ethnicity and, 141 88, 118, 124-125, 129, 130 n.21, sex differences, 140-141, 142-143 150, 151, 152-153, 156 n.18, 175 social-ecological influences, 98-99, 104 n.14, 182-184, 194, 200, 213, 219, social factors, 162, 209, 221, 223, 225 227, 229, 235, 264 (see also Peer socioeconomic status and, 160, 163, 166 country comparisons) stress and, 168 U.S. Department of Education, 179 n.20, surveys, 139 180, 242 trends, 5, 140-141, 221, 290 U.S. Department of Health and Human Transportation-related injuries Services, 7, 242, 249, 255, 285 n.2 adolescents and young adults, 69, 75, U.S. Department of State, 270 76, 80 behavioral factors, 133, 151, 154, 226 V environmental factors, 5, 121, 133, 195, Violence-related injuries (see also 200, 204, 226, 230 Homicides) excess years of life lost, 51, 52, 53, 54, access to care, 120-121 154 children, 2, 69, 75 health system impacts, 109, 117 n.11, environmental factors, 5, 204-205 121, 133, 134, 226 mental illness and 85-86 life-course perspective, 102-103 mortality rates, 2, 33-34, 58, 69, 75, 77, medical care, 110, 118, 119, 120-121 78, 80, 87, 120-121

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394 INDEX National Prevention Council International Consortium in Psychiatric recommendations, 366-368 Epidemiology, 86 n.20 sex differences, 77, 78 recommendations for, 7, 249 young adults, 2, 80 Rio Declaration on Social Determinants of Health, 257 World Health Report 2000, 137 W World Mortality Database, 35 n.9, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 59 Warwick University, 183 World Values Survey, 222 Washington Group on Disability Statistics, 257 Whitehall Studies, 264 Y Workforce productivity and competitiveness, 89 Years of life lost Workplace environment, 198-199 before age 50 years, 2, 46-48, 49, 52, World Alliance for Risk Factor Surveillance, 53, 54, 55, 56, 78, 87 257 birth through age 4, 67 World Bank, 256 cardiovascular disease, 52, 53, 54, 55 World Gallup Poll, 201, 222 HIV and AIDS, 2, 87 World Health Organization (WHO), 15, 26, injuries, 87 59, 64, 86, 117 n.12, 136, 146, 255, suicide, 78 256, 259 Young adulthood (ages 20-34) Commission on Social Determinants of diabetes, 61 Health, 98, 103-104, 237 health status, 61-62, 78-80 Composite International Diagnostic injuries, 56, 78-79, 87 Interview, 86 n.20 mortality rates, 70, 87 definition of birth weight, 63 overweight and obesity, 78 Global Status Report on Alcohol, 150 Youth Risk Behavioral Survey (YRBS), 153, Global Status Report on Road Safety, 260 155