Adults (see Age 50; Maturity (age 50+); Middle adulthood (ages 35-49); Young adulthood (ages 20-34))

Age 50

cardiovascular risk, 3, 88

health outcomes, 80-82

life expectancy at, 12, 36-37, 41, 82, 84, 87

survival to, 41-46, 47

Air pollution, 133, 194, 199-200, 204

Alcohol (see Drug and alcohol use)

American Community Survey, 242

Anxiety disorders, 74, 86, 190

Arthritis, 3, 31, 38, 84, 88

Asthma, 5, 28, 36, 69, 72, 84, 88, 124, 125, 133, 205, 233, 250, 276

Australia, 11, 95 n.1, 115, 118, 123-124, 129, 135, 151, 156 n.18, 172, 182-183, 194, 195 n.5, 227, 229, 234 (see also Peer country comparisons)

Austria, 95 n.1, 118, 145, 148, 216, 219, 221 (see also Peer country comparisons)

B

Behavioral factors (see also specific behaviors)

cardiovascular disease, 16-17, 58, 138, 144, 146, 147, 150, 159

life-course perspective, 102

social-ecological framework, 97-99, 104

television, advertising, and other media influences, 97

and U.S. health disparity, 5

Behavioral Risk Factor and Surveillance System (BRFSS) survey, 150 n.13, 156 n.18, 242, 259-260, 261, 265

Belgium, 26 n.2, 145, 180, 183-184, 216, 221 (see also Peer country comparisons)

Bipolar disorder, 31, 38, 85, 86

Birth outcomes, adverse

data sources, 250

drug and alcohol use and, 149

health objectives, 276

infant mortality rates, 2, 9, 40, 58, 60, 61, 65-66, 67-68, 69, 73, 87, 89, 110, 134, 140, 186, 190, 208, 213-214, 215, 216, 217, 232-233, 250, 254, 268, 273, 275, 276, 289

life-course perspective, 89, 186, 232-233

low birth weight, 2, 30, 60 n.6, 61, 63, 65, 66, 67, 69 n.8, 73, 87, 89, 134, 140, 186, 205, 213-214, 217, 232-233, 273, 276, 290 n.6

maternal characteristics and, 69, 73, 89, 140

medical care and, 110

peer country comparisons, 65-66, 67-69, 134, 190, 213-214, 215, 216, 217, 273

political and social regimes and, 213-214, 215, 216, 217

poverty and, 67

premature births, 30, 66, 276

prevention, 208

research needs, 268, 289

stillbirths, 61, 63, 65-66

tobacco use and, 140

trends, 216

Blacks (see also Racial and ethnic minorities)

birth outcomes, 68-69

life expectancy, 40-41

Blood pressure, 3, 37, 62-63, 64, 78, 83, 89, 93, 109 n.3, 122, 132, 139, 350, 351 (see also Hypertension)

Born in Bradford, UK, 264

Brazil, 34, 65 n.7, 194, 234

Breast cancer, 31, 130

Breastfeeding, 60, 67, 144 n.4, 145-146, 281, 363

British Cohort Study, 264

Brookings Institution, 183

Built environment, 5, 194-195, 205, 207, 222, 232, 253

C

Canada, 11, 21, 36, 40, 65 n.7, 74, 84, 95, 115, 116, 122, 123-124, 127, 151, 152, 177, 183, 184, 194 (see also Peer country comparisons)

Cancer (see also specific cancers)

behavioral factors, 138, 139, 140, 141-142, 144, 147, 149, 152, 209, 221, 250 n.2

epigenetic effects, 170

incidence, 34

life-course perspective, 101

mortality rates, 14, 28, 34, 38, 89



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