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FIGURE 2-4 Infant mortality rates in the United States and average of 16 peer countries, 1960-2009.
NOTE: The average is calculated for the 16 peer countries examined in Chapter 1.
SOURCE: Viner (2012, supplemental analysis).

mortality declined by 20 percent between 1990 and 2010, other high-income countries experienced much steeper declines and halved their infant mortality rates over those two decades (Palloni and Yonker, 2012). Mortality rates after infancy followed a similar pattern: as of 1955, mortality rates at ages 1-5 were much lower in the United States than the OECD mean, but the latter fell dramatically and since 1980 have mirrored the United States (Viner, 2012).

Although birth outcomes are much worse for particular groups in the United States, such as black women (David and Collins, 1997; National Center for Health Statistics, 2012), the generally poor birth outcomes in the United States cannot be explained by the racial or ethnic diversity of



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