Appendix A

Survey Questions About Migration and Border Crossing

This appendix provides examples of questions about migration and border crossing that are asked in the surveys discussed in Chapters 3 and 4.1

American Community Survey (ACS) and Current Population Survey (CPS)

•   In what country was this person born?
[There is a drop-down list of precoded countries. If the United States, skip to country of birth of parents. If Puerto Rico or outlying area, skip to country of birth of parents and then go to year of entry.]

•   Were you born a citizen of the United States? [Yes or no.]
[Asked if born outside of the United States, Puerto Rico, or in an outlying area—except if both parents were born in the United States, Puerto Rico, or in an outlying area.]

•   Did you become a citizen of the United States through naturalization? [Yes or no.]
[For people who report being U.S. citizens but were born outside the United States.]

•   Did you become a citizen of the United States through naturalization? [Yes or no.]2

_________________

1 The panel was unable to obtain relevant migration and border crossing questions from the Mexican Family Life Survey.

2 The CPS does not ask for year of naturalization, but the ACS does.



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Appendix A Survey Questions About Migration and Border Crossing This appendix provides examples of questions about migration and border crossing that are asked in the surveys discussed in Chapters 3 and 4.1 American Community Survey (ACS) and Current Population Survey (CPS) • In what country was this person born?  [There is a drop-down list of precoded countries. If the United States, skip to country of birth of parents. If Puerto Rico or outly- ing area, skip to country of birth of parents and then go to year of entry.] • Were you born a citizen of the United States? [Yes or no.]  [Asked if born outside of the United States, Puerto Rico, or in an outlying area—except if both parents were born in the United States, Puerto Rico, or in an outlying area.] • Did you become a citizen of the United States through naturaliza- tion? [Yes or no.]  [For people who report being U.S. citizens but were born outside the United States.] • Did you become a citizen of the United States through naturaliza- tion? [Yes or no.]2 1  The panel was unable to obtain relevant migration and border crossing questions from the Mexican Family Life Survey. 2  The CPS does not ask for year of naturalization, but the ACS does. 125

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126 ESTIMATING ILLEGAL ENTRIES AT THE U.S.–MEXICO BORDER • When did you come to live in the United States?  [For anyone who reported being born outside the United States.] SOURCES: http://www.census.gov/acs/www/methodology/questionnaire_ archive/ and http://www.census.gov/cps/methodology/questions.html. Mexican Census—Basic Questionnaire (2010) Individual questionnaire. Questions on migration: • For all individuals in the household: In what state of Mexico or in what country was (NAME) born? o the state of residence In o other state In o the United States In o other country (specify) In • For all individuals 5 years and older in the household: Five years ago, in June 2005, in what state of Mexico or in what country was (NAME) living? o the same state In o other state In o the United States In o other country (specify) In Mexican Census Sample—Long Questionnaire (2010) Individual questionnaire. Questions on migration: • (Same as basic questionnaire) Special module on international migration: • During the last 5 years, that is, from June 2005 up to today, has somebody currently living with you or who lived with you (in this dwelling) left to live in another country? [Yes or No.] • How many people? • For each person mentioned: o  hen (NAME) left the last time, was he/she living with you? W [Yes or No.] o Gender of (NAME) o of (NAME) when he/she left the last time (in years) Age o  what month and year did (NAME) go to live in another coun- In try the last time?

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APPENDIX A 127 o  what state of Mexico was (NAME) living when he/she left the In last time? o o what country did (NAME) go? T § United States § Another country (specify) o (NAME) is currently living: § the United States In § another country In § Mexico In • In what month and year did (NAME) return to Mexico? • Is (NAME) currently living here, in this dwelling? [Yes or No.] Other migration information: • For all people in the household 12 years and older: o Does (NAME) receive money from? § Government programs § Pension § Other people who live abroad § Other people who live in Mexico § Other sources SOURCE: http://www.censo2010.org.mx/ (Translated from Spanish by the panel.) National Survey of Occupation and Employment (ENOE) No migration questions included in the first interview. For the subse- quent interviews (four rounds), based on the household roster from the first interview, the questionnaire asks: • I will mention all the people that were living in this household in the prior interview: o Indicate if they still live here. o there somebody else living here that is part of the household? Is • For those who left: o What was the reason why (NAME) left? § Work § Study § Marriage or start of a union § Separation or divorce § Health problems § Meet with family

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128 ESTIMATING ILLEGAL ENTRIES AT THE U.S.–MEXICO BORDER § Insecurity § Dead § Other o what state of Mexico or country did (NAME) go? To § Same state § Other state § Other country • For new arrivals: o What was the reason why (NAME) moved in? § Work § Study § Marriage or start of a union § Separation or divorce § Health problems § Meet with family § Insecurity § Newborn § Missed in the prior round § Other o Where did (NAME) come from? § Same state § Other state § Other country Short questionnaire (administered to all household members 12 years and older): • For those not occupied: o  ave you tried to look for a job in another country or have you H prepared to cross the border? o last time you lost your job, what was your situation? The o Returned or was deported from the United States • For those working: o  uring the last 3 months, have you tried to look for a job in D another country or have you prepared to cross the border? Long questionnaire (administered to a random sample of household mem- bers 12 years and older): (Aside from the questions included in the short questionnaire) • For those working: o Did you move from another city or community to get or keep your current job?

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APPENDIX A 129 o  what state or country were you living before this change of In residence? • For all members: o  the last 3 months have you received economic support from In somebody who lives or works in another country? SOURCE: http://www.inegi.org.mx/est/contenidos/proyectos/encuestas/ hogares/regulares/enoe/default.aspx (Translated from Spanish by the panel.) Mexican National Survey of Population Dynamics (ENADID, 2006 and 2009 cross-sections) For each individual living in the household at the time of the survey, provide information on: • If the person lived in the United States a year prior to the survey, and the month/year of his/her return • If the person lived in the United States 5 years prior to the survey For each (“regular” or habitual) household member 5 years prior to the survey (whether or not the person is living in the household at the time of the survey), information on: • Whether the person emigrated to the United States in the 5 years prior to the survey and, for those who did: o  onth/year of emigration M o  .S. state of destination U o  .S. immigration documentation that the person carried on his/ U her last trip (within this time period) o  onth/year of return from the United States (if applicable) M o  returned to Mexico, if the person is still part of the household If o  ain reason for emigrating to the United States (only in 2006) M SOURCES: 2006 ENADID questionnaire, available at http://sinais.salud. gob.mx/demograficos/enadid/cuestionarios.html (April 4, 2012) and 2009 ENADID questionnaire, available at http://www.inegi.org.mx/est/ contenidos/Proyectos/encuestas/hogares/especiales/Enadid/Default.aspx (April 4, 2012). (Translated from Spanish by the panel.) Survey of Migration at the Northern Border (EMIF-N) • Are you thinking of crossing to the other side? Are you thinking of doing it in the next 30 days?

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130 ESTIMATING ILLEGAL ENTRIES AT THE U.S.–MEXICO BORDER • Through which Mexican city are you going to cross? Principally, why did you choose this city to cross? Did you or will you contract with a person (coyote, guide, smuggler, etc.) to help you cross the border? • Where did you contract with the person to help you cross the bor- der? How much did you agree to pay? • Do you have documents to cross? Which documents do you have? Since when have you had them? • Do you have documents to work? • PAST TRIPS: In total, how many times have you crossed to the United States to work or look for work? What was the first time? What was the last time? In what month and year was the last time that you crossed to the United States? Through which city did you cross? On that occasion, did you have some type of document to cross to the United States? Did you carry some type of document to work? Did you contract with someone to help you cross the border? Where did you contract with that person? SOURCE: http://www.colef.net/emif/ (Translated from Spanish by the panel.) Mexican Migration Project (MMP) Information about each undocumented border crossings of household head or another migrant from the household: • Year of crossing • Crossing place (city and state in Mexico) • Crossed with whom • Used coyote? How much paid? Who paid? • Number of deportations • Successful crossing? SOURCE: Table K in http://mmp.opr.princeton.edu/databases/pdf%20 surveys/MMP%20Ethnosurvey%20Version%20V%20Applied%20 from%202007%20to%202011.pdf.

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APPENDIX A 131 Mexican Migration Field Research Project (MMFRP)3 2011-2012 • For first and last trips, questions about: o Destination country and state o Year of arrival o Length of stay (months) o Occupation at destination o Position at work • Have you ever been to or tried to go to the United States to live or work? • Were you caught on your last trip across the border? Were you able to cross? • Did you pass a checkpoint? • How did you go through the checkpoint? • Attempting to cross, have you been a witness to or victim of violence by: o coyote? A o Immigration officer? o Mexican police? o Mexican army? o Other? • Currently, how hard do you think it is to evade immigration officers? • Currently, how dangerous do you think it is to evade immigration officers? • Do you personally know someone who died trying to cross the border? • Now I will show you some pictures. Of the things shown in these drawings, which are the three that most concern a person crossing the border with papers and in what order? 2010-2011 • For first and last trips, questions about: o Year of arrival o Month of arrival o Documents o Number of times stopped during crossing o Used a coyote o U.S. dollars paid to coyote 3  Questions vary from year to year.

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132 ESTIMATING ILLEGAL ENTRIES AT THE U.S.–MEXICO BORDER o Duration of the trip to the United States (month) o First occupation in the United States o Position at work o Hours worked per week on the job o Total earnings § Dollar amount § Frequency • How did you gather the money to pay for the trip? • Which part of the border did you cross or try to cross? • When you crossed or tried to cross the border, did you have papers or did you cross without papers? • To enter the United States on your last trip, did immigration officers or customs officers o Stop you? o Inspect your car? o Search your body or clothing? • During your last trip, how many times did you try to cross the border? • How many times were you detained? • Were you finally able to cross? • In what year were you not able to cross? • Did you pass a checkpoint? • How did you go through the checkpoint? • In what manner did you cross the border? • In your last crossing or attempt, where did you meet the coyote who helped you cross? • Who recommended the coyote? • How satisfied were you with the coyote? • Attempting to cross, have you witnessed an act of violence by: o coyote? A o Immigration officer? o Bandits? • Attempting to cross, were you a victim of violence by: o coyote? A o Immigration officer? o Bandits? • In your last trip, did you have to pay a bribe to the Mexican police to reach the United States? • Currently, how difficult is it to evade immigration? • Currently, if you don’t have papers, how dangerous is it to cross the border? • Did you personally know someone who went to the United States and died trying to cross the border?

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APPENDIX A 133 • According to what you know, what is the best month to cross with- out papers? • Now I will show you some pictures. Of the things shown in these drawings, which are the three most concerning to a person crossing without papers, in the order of concern? o Bandits or gangs o Extreme temperatures or other natural hazards o Immigration officer o Imprisonment if they catch you o Mexican police o Not finding work on the other side o wall The SOURCE: Mexican Migration Field Research Project. (Translated from Spanish by the panel.) Questionnaire on file with panel.

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