least one return migrant,10 31,536 households with at least one circular migrant,11 and 89,601 households with at least one out-migrant.12 In total, 186,456 households reported a migration experience, and 149,000 households reported that they were receiving remittances.

Using the questions in the long questionnaire, the following analyses are possible:

•   Estimates of the flow of out-migration, circular migration, and return migration in the past 5 years nationally and by state of residence at the time of the migration (see, e.g., Giorguli and Gutiérrez, in press);

•   Gender and age composition of the above flows;

•   Estimates of the return rates and the social-demographic characteristics of return migrants (and of circular migrants if currently living in the same household); and

•   Geographical profile of the intensity of migration by municipality (based on the proportion of households where at least one member has migrated and/or received remittances).


Mexico’s National Survey of Occupation and Employment (known in Spanish as Encuesta Nacional de Ocupación y Empleo [ENOE]) is funded by the Government of Mexico. INEGI is responsible for collecting and processing the ENOE data and making them publicly available on its website. The main objective of this national probability survey is to capture short-term changes in the occupation and labor force situation of the working age population in Mexico. It also includes detailed information on employment characteristics, access to social benefits, hours worked per week, income, social-demographic characteristics, and residential status. The first round of ENOE was conducted in 2005, although antecedents of the survey date back to 1972.

The target population is the working age population of Mexico (individuals 12 years and older). The sampling frame is INEGI’s National Households Frame 2002, which is based on cartographic and demographic

10 “Return migrant” refers to a person born in Mexico who lived in the United States before 2005 and returned any time between 2005 and 2010.

11 “Circular” migrant refers to a person born in Mexico who moved to the United States after 2005 and returned before 2010. There is some overlap between circular migrants and return migrants (Passel et al., 2012).

12 “Out-migrant” refers to a person born in Mexico who left for the United States between 2005 and 2010 and has not returned.

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