the survey.18 For the measurement of out-migration, the main respondent of the survey is asked if any person who currently lives or previously lived in the household left for the United States about 5 years prior to the survey (the period of reference varies slightly by cross-section), the times of out-migration and (if applicable) return, and the basic social-demographic profile of the emigrants. In 2006 and 2009, the ENADID questionnaire also included items aimed at measuring the documentation or visa held by people at the time of out-migration, including residence permits (other than a green card), work permits, green card, tourist visa, student visa, U.S. citizenship, other, and no documentation.

ENADID has been used to study international migration, mostly to describe the general social-demographic profile of migrants (Canales, 1999; Durand and Massey, 2003; Durand et al., 2001; Riosmena and Massey, 2012). It has also been used to complement analyses using convenience samples, such as the MMP (McKenzie and Rapoport, 2007) and as a criterion to evaluate the validity of the MMP (Massey and Capoferro, 2004; Zenteno and Massey, 1999), the Survey of Migration at the Northern Border of Mexico (Rendall et al., 2009), and ENOE (for measuring return migration) (Rendall et al., 2011). Estimates of international out- and in-migration using ENADID (along with many other data sources) are provided in Galindo and Ramos (2008).


The Survey of Migration at the Northern Border of Mexico is known by the acronym EMIF-Norte (or simply EMIF-N) for its Spanish name, Encuesta sobre Migración en la Frontera Norte de México. EMIF-N is a multistage probability sample of flows across the U.S.–Mexico border and has been used to estimate migration flows (Rendall et al., 2009). It is sponsored by the Mexican government’s Ministry of Labor and Social Welfare, CONAPO, National Migration Institute (Instituto Nacional de Migración, INM), and Ministry of Foreign Relations. Funding has also been provided by the World Bank (Secretaría de Gobernación et al., 2010, 2011). The survey is carried out by El Colegio de la Frontera Norte (COLEF) and has been fielded annually since 1993. Microdata for the period from 1995 to the first quarter of 2012 are presently available on the COLEF website ( for public download. Data and documentation are also available on the CONAPO website (


18 For a discussion of the advantages and limitations of these questions, see Rogers and colleagues (2003).

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