3

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE DEPLOYED

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The focus of this chapter is on the demographic characteristics of US military personnel deployed to Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) and/or Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF), and it is based on data from the Department of Defense (DOD) Defense Manpower Data Center (DMDC) Contingency Tracking System (CTS). A CTS “deployment” for OEF and OIF is defined as “a DOD service member who is or has been physically located within the OEF and/or OIF combat zones or areas of operation (AOR), or has been specifically identified by his/her service as ‘directly supporting’ the OEF and/or OIF mission outside the designated combat zone (e.g., US Air Force aircrew or support personnel located at an airbase outside the combat zone)” (Bonds et al., 2010). The DMDC CTS includes all US military personnel who have been deployed to OEF, OIF, and OND in support of the Global War on Terror from September 11, 2001, to the present time. The committee, however, only has records through December 31, 2010. The file the committee received with the variables requested represents a snapshot in time, that is, the status of the deployed at the time the file was created. Thus, all descriptive analyses in the chapter reflect the characteristics of the deployed at one point in time. The committee did not use the descriptive analyses in this chapter to link with any other data in the report.

DEMOGRAPHICS

The following analyses are based on the 2.1 million service members who had been deployed to OEF, OIF, and/or OND by the end of 2010 (Table 3.1).1 Over half those deployed were in the Army, including all components; 28% were in the Regular Army alone. The proportion of those deployed by branch in the Regular components ranged from 56% in the Army to 84% in the Navy and Marine Corps. In turn, those in the National Guard and reserves (combined across all services) constituted one-third of all those deployed.

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1Although these descriptive analyses would ideally have included data and reference comparisons with the nondeployed or the total force during this period, providing comparable data would have required access to identifiable data on all the nondeployed as well as all those deployed. The committee was not able to obtain full identifiable information on all the nondeployed to conduct the descriptive analyses.



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3 CHARACTERISTICS OF THE DEPLOYED The focus of this chapter is on the demographic characteristics of US military personnel deployed to Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) and/or Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF), and it is based on data from the Department of Defense (DOD) Defense Manpower Data Center (DMDC) Contingency Tracking System (CTS). A CTS “deployment” for OEF and OIF is defined as “a DOD service member who is or has been physically located within the OEF and/or OIF combat zones or areas of operation (AOR), or has been specifically identified by his/her service as ‘directly supporting’ the OEF and/or OIF mission outside the designated combat zone (e.g., US Air Force aircrew or support personnel located at an airbase outside the combat zone)” (Bonds et al., 2010). The DMDC CTS includes all US military personnel who have been deployed to OEF, OIF, and OND in support of the Global War on Terror from September 11, 2001, to the present time. The committee, however, only has records through December 31, 2010. The file the committee received with the variables requested represents a snapshot in time, that is, the status of the deployed at the time the file was created. Thus, all descriptive analyses in the chapter reflect the characteristics of the deployed at one point in time. The committee did not use the descriptive analyses in this chapter to link with any other data in the report. DEMOGRAPHICS The following analyses are based on the 2.1 million service members who had been deployed to OEF, OIF, and/or OND by the end of 2010 (Table 3.1).1 Over half those deployed were in the Army, including all components; 28% were in the Regular Army alone. The proportion of those deployed by branch in the Regular components ranged from 56% in the Army to 84% in the Navy and Marine Corps. In turn, those in the National Guard and reserves (combined across all services) constituted one-third of all those deployed. 1 Although these descriptive analyses would ideally have included data and reference comparisons with the nondeployed or the total force during this period, providing comparable data would have required access to identifiable data on all the nondeployed as well as all those deployed. The committee was not able to obtain full identifiable information on all the nondeployed to conduct the descriptive analyses. 31

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32 RETURNING HOME FROM IRAQ AND AFGHANISTAN TABLE 3.1 Service Members Deployed, by Branch of Service and Componenta as of 2010 Component Army Navy Air Force Marine Corps Coast Guard TOTAL Regular 608,634 323,701 280,182 219,335 4,813 1,436,665 National Guard 298,728 N/A 79,777 N/A N/A 378,505 Reserves 173,825 60,161 54,632 42,316 1,271 332,205 TOTAL 1,081,187 383,862 414,591 261,651 6,084 2,147,375 a In contrast with the Army and Air Force, the Navy and Marine Corps do not have National Guard components. Entire file contained 2,147,398, but 23 had an unknown component. SOURCE: Defense Manpower Data Center. Pay Grade As shown in Table 3.2, over 85% of those deployed in all components and service branches were enlisted, with nearly 6 in 10 of the enlisted in the senior enlisted grades (E5–E9). The proportion of total enlisted personnel (E1–E9) supporting the operations ranged from about 78% in the Coast Guard to about 90% in the Marine Corps. The proportion of senior enlisted personnel in those deployed ranged from 40% in the Marine Corps to about 62% in the Air Force. TABLE 3.2 Service Members Deployed, by Branch of Service and Pay Grade, as of 2010 Army, Navy, Air Force, Marine Corps, Coast Guard, TOTAL, N N N N N N Pay Grade (column %) (column %) (column %) (column %) (column %) (column %) E1–E4 405,014 121,159 83,832 132,049 1,388 743,442 (37.5) (31.6) (20.2) (50.5) (22.8) (34.6) E5–E9 514,722 210,208 258,234 104,225 3,367 1,090,756 (47.6) (54.8) (62.3) (39.8) (55.3) (50.8) O1–3 69,312 23,012 27,905 11,260 638 132,127 (6.4) (6.0) (6.7) (4.3) (10.5) (6.2) O4–O10 63,789 27,197 44,639 11,402 440 147,467 (5.9) (7.1) (10.8) (4.4) (7.2) (6.9) Warrant Officer 28,350 2,275 0 2,716 251 33,592 (2.6) (0.6) (0) (1.0) (4.1) (1.6) TOTAL 1,081,187 383,851 414,610 261,652 6,084 2,147,384 (row %) (50.3) (17.9) (19.3) (12.2) (0.3) (100) NOTE: Entire file contained 2,147,398, but 11 Navy and three Air Force personnel had missing pay grade. SOURCE: Defense Manpower Data Center. Sex Of the military personnel serving in OEF and/or OIF through 2010, about 88% were men and about 12% women (Table 3.3); the proportion of women deployed (across all components) ranged from about 3% in the Marine Corps to over 17% in the Air Force. By pay grade, the proportion of women among those deployed ranged from about 8% of the warrant officers to about 16% of the junior officers (O1–O3). The proportion of women deployed by branch and pay

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CHARACTERISTICS OF THE DEPLOYED 33 grade ranged from about 3% of junior enlisted marines to over 20% of junior officers in the Air Force. TABLE 3.3 Proportion of Women Deployed, by Branch of Service and Pay Grade, as of 2010 Army, Navy, Air Force, Marine Corps, Coast Guard, TOTAL, Pay Grade N (%) N (%) N (%) N (%) N (%) N (%) E1–E4 46,458 18,163 14,651 4,254 115 83,641 (11.5) (15.0) (17.4) (3.2) (8.3) (11.3) E5–E9 56,673 26,163 39,545 4,534 205 127,120 (11.0) (12.4) (15.3) (4.3) (6.1) (11.7) O1–O3 11,265 3,928 5,727 848 80 21,848 (16.3) (17.1) (20.5) (7.5) (12.5) (16.5) O4–O10 7,108 2,741 5,568 378 36 15,831 (11.1) (10.1) (12.5) (3.3) (8.2) (10.7) Warrant officer 2,351 113 0 117 10 2,591 (8.3) (5.0) (0) (4.3) (4.0) (7.7) TOTAL women 123,855 51,108 65,491 10,131 446 251,031 (% of total (11.5) (13.3) (15.8) (3.9) (7.3) (11.7) deployed) NOTE: N, number of women in each group; %, percentage based on denominators in Table 3.2. Entire file contained 251,033 women, but two Navy women had missing pay grade, and 24 Army personnel had missing sex. SOURCE: Defense Manpower Data Center. Age As shown in Table 3.4, the average age of those deployed was 33.4 years. Half the deployed were 25–34 years old at the end of 2010 (about 72% were 25–44 years old), with approximately equal proportions either under 25 years old or 45 years old or older. The proportions of those 25–34 years old by branch ranged from about 45% in the Air Force to about 60% in the Marine Corps. In addition, about 25% of marines were less than 25 years old (about 84% less than 35 years old). Marine Corps deployed had the lowest mean age, 29.5 years, and Air Force deployed had the highest mean age, 35.8 years. TABLE 3.4 Age Distributions and Mean Ages of Deployed Service Members, by Service Branch, as of 2010 Army, Navy, Air Force, Marine Corps, Coast Guard, TOTAL, Age N N N N N N (years) (column %) (column %) (column %) (column %) (column %) (column %) <20 4,084 650 222 827 1 5,784 (0.4) (0.2) (0.05) (0.3) (0.02) (0.3) 20–24 164,904 48,364 39,222 63,490 456 316, 436 (15.3) (12.6) (9.5) (24.3) (7.5) (14.7) 25–29 316,570 111,897 101,310 107,262 1,801 638,840 (29.3) (29.2) (24.4) (41.0) (29.6) (29.8) 30–34 212,293 83,773 84,739 48,460 1,619 430,884 (19.6) (21.8) (20.4) (18.5) (26.6) (20.1)

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34 RETURNING HOME FROM IRAQ AND AFGHANISTAN Army, Navy, Air Force, Marine Corps, Coast Guard, TOTAL, Age N N N N N N (years) (column %) (column %) (column %) (column %) (column %) (column %) 35–39 134,686 51,049 56,220 19,789 888 262,632 (12.5) (13.3) (13.6) (7.6) (14.6) (12.2) 40–44 113,491 43,574 52,842 11,973 632 222,512 (10.5) (11.4) (12.7) (4.6) (10.4) (10.4) 45–49 76,570 28,988 45,493 6,606 400 158,057 (7.1) (7.6) (11.0) (2.5) (6.6) (7.4) 50–54 35,050 11,025 20,322 2,435 174 69,006 (3.2) (2.9) (4.9) (0.9) (2.9) (3.2) ≥55 23,466 4,537 14,243 810 113 43,169 (2.2) (1.2) (3.4) (0.3) (1.9) (2.0) TOTAL 1,081,114 383,857 414,613 261,652 6,084 2,147,320 Mean age 33.4 33.6 35.8 29.5 34.1 33.4 NOTE: Entire file contained 2,147,398, but 73 Army and 5 Navy personnel had missing age. SOURCE: Defense Manpower Data Center. The numbers of regular component and National Guard and reserve component officers and enlisted members by age are summarized in Table 3.5. On the average, those deployed from the National Guard and reserves were older than service members in the regular component, 36 vs 32 years old, respectively. Among National Guard and reserve component officers, 75% were 35 years old or older compared with 59% of regular component officers, primarily because of differences between junior officers (grades O1–O3), 47% vs 26%. Forty percent of the National Guard and reserve component enlisted members were under 30 years old compared with 55% of the regular component enlisted members; the magnitudes of the differences were consistent in the junior and senior enlisted. Race and Ethnicity The percentage of missing or unknown data in the DMDC database is especially high for race and ethnicity, particularly for Hispanic origin. Of service members with known race (92%) serving in OEF and/or OIF, about 77% were white, 17% black, 4% Asian, and 2% other races. Of those with reported ethnicity (59%), about 18% were of Hispanic origin.2 2 Because the proportions with missing data on race and ethnicity are significantly higher than the other characteristics in this chapter, we were concerned about providing additional descriptive analyses based on these variables.

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TABLE 3.5 Age Distributions and Mean Age of Deployed Service Members, by Component and Pay Grade, as of 2010 Regular Reserve/National Guard E1–E4, E5–E9, O1–O3, O4–O10, Warrant TOTAL, E1–E4, E5–E9, O1–O3, O4–O10, Warrant TOTAL, N N N N Officer, N N N N N Officer, N Age (column %) (column %) (column %) (column %) N (column %) (column %) (column %) (column %) (column %) N (column %) (years) (column %) (column %) <20 5,057 0 0 0 0 5,057 727 0 0 0 0 727 (0.9) (0) (0) (0) (0) (0.4) (0.4) (0) (0) (0) (0) (0.1) 20–24 204,874 41,790 2,710 0 38 249,412 53,298 12,653 344 0 99 67,024 (38.3) (6.0) (3.1) (0) (0.2) (17.4) (26.0) (3.3) (0.8) (0) (0.8) (9.4) 25–29 225,939 201,384 31,666 0 980 459,971 85,207 84,847 7,483 0 1,329 178,867 (42.2) (28.7) (36.0) (0) (4.8) (32.0) (41.0) (21.8) (17.0) (0) (10.0) (25.2) 30–34 77,491 175,745 31,161 8,026 3,870 296,298 40,184 74,663 15,650 1,746 2,329 134,573 (14.5) (25.1) (35.4) (8.8) (19.0) (20.6) (19.3) (19.2) (35.5) (3.1) (17.6) (18.9) 35–39 16,339 115,165 14,252 22,378 5,121 173,258 14,101 54,996 10,753 7,554 1,967 89,372 (3.1) (16.4) (16.2) (24.6) (25.2) (12.1) (6.8) (14.1) (24.4) (13.4) (14.8) (12.6) 40–44 5,123 90,994 6,311 25,825 4,818 133,071 7,991 58,381 6,739 14,144 2,186 89,441 (1.0) (13.0) (7.2) (28.4) (23.7) (9.3) (3.9) (15.0) (15.3) (25.1) (16.5) (12.6) 45–49 716 57,620 1,541 20,237 3,611 83,725 3,704 50,647 2,249 15,451 2,278 74,329 (0.1) (8.2) (1.8) (22.2) (17.8) (5.8) (1.8) (13.0) (5.1) (27.4) (17.2) (10.5) 50–54 78 15,943 353 9,903 1,401 27,679 1,423 28,343 629 9,574 1,356 41,325 (0.01) (2.3) (0.4) (10.9) (6.9) (1.9) (0.7) (7.3) (1.4) (17.0) (10.2) (5.8) ≥55 5 2,917 70 4,669 483 8,144 534 24,626 211 7,944 1,709 35,024 (0) (0.4) (0.08) (5.1) (2.4) (0.6) (0.3) (6.3) (0.5) (14.1) (12.9) (4.9) TOTAL 535,622 701,558 88,064 91,038 20,322 1,436,615 207,799 389,156 44,058 56,413 13,253 710,682 Mean 26.7 34.4 32.2 43.4 40.5 32.0 29.0 38.4 35.5 47.0 42.6 36.2 age NOTE: Entire file contained 2,147,398, but 78 had missing age, and 14 had missing pay grade. SOURCE: Defense Manpower Data Center. 35

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36 RETURNING HOME FROM IRAQ AND AFGHANISTAN Education Of those deployed to OEF and/or OIF in all service branches and components, less than 1% had less than a high-school education (see Table 3.6). Over two-thirds had a high-school degree or equivalent (GED), and over 30% had at least some college education. Of junior officers (O1–O3), 88% had at least a college degree, and over 70% of those who had advanced degrees were senior officers (O4–O10). High-school degrees and GEDs were most common among junior and senior enlisted, but over 75% of those who had some college education but no college degree were senior enlisted service members. TABLE 3.6 Education Status of Deployed Service Members, by Pay Grade, as of 2010 Enlisted Commissioned Officers E1–E4, E5–E9, O1–O3, O4–O10, Warrant TOTAL, Education N N N N Officer, N Status (column %) (column %) (column %) (column %) N (column %) (column %) Less than 10,722 6,935 55 28 15 17,755 high (1.4) (0.6) (0.04) (0.02) (0.04) (0.8) school GED 82,194 47,382 82 159 363 130,181 (11.1) (4.3) (0.06) (0.1) (1.1) (6.1) High 588,084 713,615 1,141 451 5,599 1,308,896 school (79.1) (65.4) (0.9) (0.3) (16.7) (61.0) Some 40,515 218,999 4,837 1,243 16,072 281,669 college (5.5) (20.1) (3.7) (0.8) (47.8) (13.1) College 10,978 77,383 94,387 54,328 8,254 245,332 graduate (1.5) (7.1) (71.4) (36.8) (24.6) (11.4) Postcollege 622 10,973 21,675 88,152 1,982 123,406 (0.1) (1.0) (16.4) (59.8) (5.9) (5.6) Unknown 10,327 15,469 9,950 3,106 1,307 40,159 (1.4) (1.4) (7.5) (2.1) (3.9) (1.9) TOTAL 743,442 1,090,756 132,127 147,467 33,592 2,147,384 NOTE: Entire file contained 2,147,398, but 14 had unknown pay grade. SOURCE: Defense Manpower Data Center. Marital Status As shown in Table 3.7, about 59% of those deployed in all services and components were married—from about 40% of the junior enlisted (E1–E4) to 85% of the senior officers (O4– O10). Marital status differed somewhat by branch of service and component. In all components, the proportions of service members married ranged from about 53% in the Marine Corps to about 65% in the Air Force (see Table 3.8). In the regular component, 61% were married—from about 55% in the Marine Corps to about 66% in the Air Force. Among the two reserve components, 55% of the reserves and 58% of the National Guard were married, and the proportion of members married ranged from 44% in the Marine Corps reserves to 65% in the Air National Guard.

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CHARACTERISTICS OF THE DEPLOYED 37 TABLE 3.7 Proportion of Deployed Service Members Married, by Branch of Service and Pay Grade, as of 2010 Army, Navy, Air Force, Marine Corps, Coast Guard, TOTAL, Pay Grade N (%)a N (%)a N (%)a N (%)a N (%)a N (%)a E1–E4 167,678 48,528 31,687 52,113 545 300,551 (41.1) (40.1) (37.8) (39.5) (39.3) (40.4) E5–E9 347,800 141,121 181,933 68,257 2,194 741,305 (67.6) (67.1) (70.5) (65.5) (65.2) (68.0) O1–O3 41,765 14,233 18,362 6,817 416 81,593 (60.3) (61.9) (65.8) (60.5) (65.2) (61.8) O4–O10 53,889 22,947 38,189 9,934 386 125,345 (84.5) (84.3) (85.6) (87.1) (87.7) (85.0) Warrant officer 23,062 1,968 0 2,379 222 27,631 (81.4) (86.5) (0) (87.6) (88.5) (82.3) TOTAL 634,194 228,800 270,174 139,500 3,763 1,276,431 (58.7) (59.6) (65.2) (53.3) (61.9) (59.4) NOTE: Entire file contained 1,276,431 married, but three Navy and three Air Force personnel had missing pay grade. a N, number married in each group; % are cell percentages representing the percentage married in each group based on denominators in Table 3.2. SOURCE: Defense Manpower Data Center. TABLE 3.8 Proportion of Deployed Service Members Married, by Branch of Service and Componenta as of 2010 Army, Navy, Air Force, Marine Corps, Coast Guard, TOTAL, Component N (%)b N (%)b N (%)b N (%)b N (%)b N (%)b Regular 374,939 193,350 183,950 121,090 3,095 876,424 (61.6) (59.7) (65.7) (55.2) (64.3) (61.0) National Guard 166,605 NA 51,564 NA NA 218,169 (55.8) (64.6) (57.6) Reserves 92,650 35,450 34,650 18,409 668 181,827 (53.3) (58.9) (63.4) (43.5) (52.6) (54.7) TOTAL 634,194 228,800 270,174 139,500 3,763 1,276,431 (58.7) (59.6) (65.2) (53.3) (61.9) (59.4) NOTE: Entire file contained 2,147,398, but 10 Air Force and 1 Marine Corps personnel had an unknown component. a In contrast with the Army and Air Force, the Navy and Marine Corps do not have National Guard components. b N, number married in each group; % are cell percentages representing the percentage married in each group based on denominators in Table 3.1. SOURCE: Defense Manpower Data Center.

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38 RETURNING HOME FROM IRAQ AND AFGHANISTAN Dependent Children The proportion of deployed service members in all service branches and components who had dependent children was 49%—from 35% in the Marine Corps to 52% in the Air Force (Table 3.9). Half those in the regular component and National Guard had dependent children compared with 44% in the reserves. The proportion in all branches and components who had dependent children ranged from a low of 28% and 35% among Marine Corps and Coast Guard reserves, respectively, to 53% in the regular Army and Air Force. In all services and components, 69% of those currently married and 11% of those who had never married had dependent children. The number of children of those who had children ranged from 1 to 14; the mean was just under 2 (1.97), with a narrow range of 1.8 in the Marine Corp Reserves to 2.02 in the regular Army. TABLE 3.9 Proportion of Deployed Service Members with Children,a by Branch of Service and Component,b as of 2010 Army, Navy, Air Force, Marine Corps, Coast Guard, TOTAL, Component N (%)c N (%)c N (%)c N (%)c N (%)c N (%)c Regular 324,857 156,179 148,786 80,564 2,364 712,750 (53.4) (48.3) (53.1) (36.7) (49.1) (49.6) National Guard 147,663 N/A 40,279 N/A N/A 187,942 (49.4) (50.5) (49.7) Reserves 77,055 29,563 27,150 11,957 442 146,167 (44.3) (49.1) (49.7) (28.3) (34.8) (44.0) Total 549,575 185,742 216,222 92,521 2,806 1,046,866 (50.8) (48.4) (52.2) (35.4) (46.1) (48.8) NOTE: Entire file contained 2,147,398, but 23 had an unknown component. a Children were defined as dependents under 21 years old. b In contrast with the Army and Air Force, the Navy and Marine Corps do not have National Guard components. c N, number in each group with children; % are cell percentages representing the percentage with children in each group based on denominators in Table 3.1. SOURCE: Defense Manpower Data Center. DEPLOYMENT Military deployments in support of the operations in Iraq and Afghanistan have varied in duration, frequency, combat intensity, geography, service branch, and service component. Sudden and prolonged deployment and separation from family or home may be enough to warrant implication of deployment as the main exposure, though this approach lacks the understanding of the complex environmental factors that service members may encounter in theater. To begin to understand any lasting health impact of this complex exposure, we must first understand the nature of deployments.

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CHARACTERISTICS OF THE DEPLOYED 39 Number of Deployments By the end of 2010, 2,147,398 service members had deployed a total of 3,683,746 deployments in support of the operations in Iraq and Afghanistan—an average of 1.72 each and a range in frequency from 1 to 47. Of those who deployed, 57% deployed only once and 43% multiple times. Of those who deployed more than once, nearly two-thirds deployed twice (27% of the total number of deployers), one-fourth deployed three times (10% of the total number of deployers), and about 15% (6% of the total number of deployers) deployed four or more times. As shown in Tables 3.10 and 3.11, the number of deployments varied substantially among service branches and components. The average number of deployments by service ranged from 1.3 in the Coast Guard and 1.6 in the Army and Marine Corps to 2.1 in the Air Force. Likewise, the proportions of multiple deployers ranged from 19% in the Coast Guard to over half in the Air Force. The proportion having four or more deployments ranged from less than 2% in the Coast Guard and 3% in the Marine Corps to 13% in the Air Force. The proportion of deployers who had multiple deployments in the National Guard and reserves (35%) was appreciably less than that in the regular component (47%); the average number ranged from 1.56 in the National Guard to 1.77 in the regular component. When one examines the numbers by branch and component, those with the lowest average numbers of deployments were the Coast Guard and Marine Corps reserves (1.22 and 1.29, respectively) and those in the regular Coast Guard (1.28). Those with the highest average numbers of deployments were the Air Force Guard and reserves (2.24 and 2.58, respectively). Over 80% of the two Coast Guard components and over 75% of the Marine Corps reserves had only one deployment compared with fewer than half those in the Air Force Guard and reserve components. TABLE 3.10 Proportion of Deployed Service Members Deployed Multiple Times, by Branch of Service and Component,a as of 2010 Army, Navy, Air Force, Marine Corps, Coast Guard, TOTAL Component N (%)b N (%)b N (%)b N (%)b N (%)b N (%)b Regular 287,938 145,043 137,760 107,462 920 679,123 (47.3) (44.8) (49.2) (48.9) (19.1) (47.3) National Guard 88,291 N/A 42,935 N/A N/A 131,226 (29.6) (53.8) (34.7) Reserves 57,201 20,876 28,164 9,943 203 116,387 (32.9) (34.7) (51.5) (23.5) (16.0) (35.3) TOTAL 433,430 165,919 208,859 117,405 1123 926,736 (40.1) (43.2) (50.4) (44.9) (18.5) (43.2) NOTE: Entire file contained 2,147,398, but 10 Air Force and one Marine Corps personnel had an unknown component. a In contrast with the Army and Air Force, the Navy and Marine Corps do not have National Guard components. b N, number with multiple deployments within each group; % are cell percentages representing the percentage with multiple deployments in each group based on denominators in Table 3.1. SOURCE: Defense Manpower Data Center.

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40 RETURNING HOME FROM IRAQ AND AFGHANISTAN TABLE 3.11 Mean Number of Deployments,a by Branch of Service and Component,b as of 2010 Component Army Navy Air Force Marine Corps Coast Guard TOTAL Regular 1.76 1.71 1.94 1.69 1.28 1.77 National Guard 1.38 N/A 2.24 N/A N/A 1.56 Reserves 1.45 1.59 2.58 1.29 1.22 1.64 TOTAL 1.61 1.69 2.08 1.63 1.27 1.72 a The distributions of average length of deployment, average length of dwell time, and number of deployments were symmetric, and the medians were very similar to the means. Thus, the committee elected to report the means. b In contrast with the Army and Air Force, the Navy and Marine Corps do not have National Guard components. Length of Deployment Duration of deployment has varied among service branches and service components and has varied temporally over the decade of deployments (see Table 3.12). The committee has presented the range of average deployment durations per service branch. The average length of deployments (total number of months divided by number of deployments) in all branches and components was 7.7 months—8.3 months for single deployers and 6.8 months for multiple deployers. When stratified by branch of service, deployment length ranged from 4.5 months in the Air Force to 9.4 months in the Army, both appreciably higher among single than among multiple deployers. By component, for single and multiple deployers combined, the range of average deployment length was fairly narrow, ranging from 7.5 months in the regular component to 8.0 in the National Guard and reserves. The higher average among the two reserve components is driven largely by single deployers; among those who had multiple deployments, the average length was actually higher in the regular components. By branch and component, average deployment length ranged from 3.5 months in the Air Force National Guard to 11.9 months in the Marine Corps reserves. TABLE 3.12 Mean Length of Deployment in Months, by Branch of Service and Component,a as of 2010 Component Army Navy Air Force Marine Corps Coast Guard TOTAL Regular 9.66 6.00 4.89 7.21 5.29 7.52 National Guard 9.21 N/A 3.46 N/A N/A 8.00 Reserves 8.96 6.13 3.85 11.96 5.29 7.96 TOTAL 9.42 6.02 4.48 7.97 6.00 7.67 a In contrast with the Army and Air Force, the Navy and Marine Corps do not have National Guard components. Considering deployment length over time, Figure 3.1 displays a consistent pattern for Air Force and Navy personnel who maintained the lowest average length of deployments over the decade of operations. The Army and Marine Corps maintained higher average length of deployments that, as one may expect, spiked during times of heavy combat early in the operations and during the 2006 and 2007 heavy combat periods. If deployment itself is considered an exposure, the “dose” may impact health, so more deployment time would theoretically be worse for subsequent health outcomes. Therefore, another way to examine duration of deployment is to compare the cumulative deployment length

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CHARACTERISTICS OF THE DEPLOYED 41 for multiple deployers. Overall, as shown in Table 3.13, those with two or more deployments averaged 16.9 months across all deployments combined. By branch of service, cumulative average length of deployment among multiple deployers ranged from 9.7 months in the Coast Guard to 20.9 months in the Army. By component, the range was much narrower, but it was higher, 14.6 months in the National Guard to 17.6 months in the regular component. Comparisons by branch and component, however, showed significantly greater variability: from 8.9 and 9.3 months in the Air Force National Guard and Coast Guard reserves, respectively, to 21.1 months in the Marine Corps reserves and 22.7 months in the regular Army. FIGURE 3.1 Average months deployed, by deployment start date and branch. TABLE 3.13 Cumulative Deployment Length in Months of Multiple Deployers, by Branch of Service and Component,a as of 2010 Component Army Navy Air Force Marine Corps Coast Guard TOTAL Regular 22.66 13.30 13.08 15.94 9.94 17.63 National Guard 17.35 N/A 8.89 N/A N/A 14.58 Reserves 17.37 12.08 11.19 21.06 9.32 15.23 TOTAL 20.88 13.14 11.95 16.38 9.65 16.90 a In contrast with the Army and Air Force, the Navy and Marine Corps do not have National Guard components. Potentially as impactful on health and other outcomes as the length and frequency of deployment is the time between deployments during which a military member can “reset” before going back into theater. That has become such a focus of concern that in 2011 the Army initiated a 2-year dwell cycle for deploying units that was contingent on demand for personnel in theater. Over the last decade, however, in all services and components, the average dwell time of those deployed two or more times was 21 months, from 16 months in the Marine Corps to about 22 months in the Army and Navy (Table 3.14). By component, the average dwell time was about 24

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42 RETURNING HOME FROM IRAQ AND AFGHANISTAN months for those in the National Guard compared with about 20 months in the reserves and regular component. Average dwell time ranged from less than 16 months in the regular Marine Corps and Coast Guard to over 26 months in the Army National Guard. There was also a notable downward trend in the length of dwell time over the decade of operations as seen in dwell times of the regular and reserve National Guard components stratified by service branch (Figures 3.2 and 3.3). Independently, the three components indicate the same trends, although reserve and National Guard components had a substantial decrease in average length of deployment early in 2003, potentially indicating the redeployment of reserve and National Guard back into theater as the operations in Iraq were about to begin (Figure 3.3). TABLE 3.14 Mean Dwell Time of Multiple Deployers, in Months, by Branch of Service and Component,a as of 2010 Component Army Navy Air Force Marine Corps Coast Guard TOTAL Regular 20.37 22.46 21.95 15.76 15.86 20.40 National Guard 26.21 N/A 21.08 N/A N/A 25.53 Reserves 21.85 21.31 17.74 18.69 19.62 20.48 TOTAL 21.75 22.32 21.20 16.00 16.54 21.00 a In contrast with the Army and Air Force, the Navy and Marine Corps do not have National Guard components. FIGURE 3.2 Average dwell time, by deployment end date and branch, regular component only.

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CHARACTERISTICS OF THE DEPLOYED 43 FIGURE 3.3 Average dwell time, by deployment end date and branch, reserve and Guard components only. Location of Deployment Understanding where military members deployed can be just as important as understanding how long and how often they deployed. The statement of task and the focus of this report is on all those deployed to OEF and OIF, including (a) those physically located within the OEF and OIF combat zones or areas of operation (AORs) and (b) those specifically identified by their service as “directly supporting” the OEF and/or OIF mission outside the designated combat zone. For many purposes, a more refined analysis would focus on deployed members who specifically served in the combat areas of operation in Afghanistan, Iraq, or both. While the DOD DMDC Contingency Tracking System contains data fields for specifying the location of each deployment designated as in direct support of the OEF, OIF, or OND mission, some individual records do not have movements in and out of country. In particular, before 2005, while DMDC did track deployments to Iraq and Afghanistan, the location codes were mostly unknown or based on the embarkation country for the service members (such as Bahrain, Kuwait, and Qatar). In 2005, the Defense Theater Accountability System increased the level of detail to include each change in country during a given service member’s deployment. Thus, use of only the Afghanistan and Iraq country codes to identify those who served in these AORs would underestimate the numbers of service members who actually served there from September 11, 2001, through 2010. Because that distinction is likely to be raised in many discussions on the impact of deployment on service members, veterans, and their families in the years ahead, we sought to explore the data further. Specifically, using the country codes, each deployment location in the file was service-classified as

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44 RETURNING HOME FROM IRAQ AND AFGHANISTAN  Afghanistan or Iraq.  Middle East locations designated as eligible for combat-zone pay or benefits (Djibouti, Israel, Jordan, Kyrgyzstan, Kuwait, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Turkey, Uzbekistan, and Yemen).  Other known countries or locations (such as Germany and Korea).  Unknown locations (location data missing). Based on those codes, it was possible to categorize all those deployed as (1) at least one deployment to Afghanistan or Iraq; (2) at least one Middle East country and all other deployment countries/locations are known; (3) Middle East and/or other countries, with at least one unknown location; (4) only countries other than Afghanistan, Iraq, or the Middle East; and (5) none of the deployment locations are known (all are missing). The distributions of deployment locations by branch of service are shown in Table 3.15 and described in detail in Chapter 2. Overall, 62% of those deployed in all branches had at least one deployment that included either Afghanistan and/or Iraq. In the Army and in the Marine Corps, 82% and 75%, respectively, had unambiguous deployments to those two countries. In contrast, in the Navy and in the Coast Guard, less than 20% and less than 10% had deployments to those countries. However, even in the Army and Marine Corps, 2–5% had no location coded for their deployments, and 15–17% had deployments to designated Middle East countries, some of which could well have been points of embarkation for Afghanistan or Iraq. Nearly 57% of those deployed in the Navy had no location specified, and over half those in the Coast Guard were deployed to other known countries and locations. Distributions by component show less variation in deployments by location in the regular and two reserve components. When they are examined by branch and component (Table 3.16), the differences described by branch on the average tended to be greater among the regular components (for example, 88% of those in the regular Army were deployed to Afghanistan or Iraq, and 62% of the regular Navy had no location specified). TABLE 3.15 Distribution of Deployment Location of Deployed Service Members, by Service Branch, as of 2010 Army, Navy, Air Force, Marine Corps, Coast Guard, TOTAL, Deployment N N N N N N Location (column %) (column %) (column %) (column %) (column %) (column %) Afghanistan or Iraq 881,444 67,138 179,146 196,295 564 1,324,587 known (81.5) (17.5) (43.2) (75.0) (9.3) (61.9) Middle East only or 154,407 31,452 72,852 42,604 1,531 302,846 Middle East and (14.3) (8.2) (17.6) (16.3) (25.2) (14.1) other known location Middle East only or 10,936 31,575 31,609 4,534 31,609 78,774 Middle East and (1.0) (8.2) (7.6) (1.7) (7.6) (3.7) other known location and unknown other location Known other 8,872 35,220 65,770 4,064 3,282 117,208 location (0.8) (9.2) (15.9) (1.6) (53.9) (5.5)

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CHARACTERISTICS OF THE DEPLOYED 45 Army, Navy, Air Force, Marine Corps, Coast Guard, TOTAL, Deployment N N N N N N Location (column %) (column %) (column %) (column %) (column %) (column %) Unknown location 25,528 218,477 65,236 14,155 587 323,983 (2.4) (56.9) (15.7) (5.4) (9.7) (15.1) TOTAL 1,081,187 383,862 414,613 261,652 6,084 2,147,398 SOURCE: Defense Manpower Data Center. TABLE 3.16 Distribution of Deployment Location of Deployed Service Members, by Component, as of 2010 Regular, National Guard, Reserves, TOTAL, N N N N Deployment Location (column %) (column %) (column %) (column %) Afghanistan or Iraq known 882,603 254,865 187,119 1,324,587 (61.4) (67.3) (56.3) (61.7) Middle East only or Middle East and 175,727 56,926 70,175 302,846 other known location (12.2) (15.0) (21.1) (14.1) Middle East only or Middle East and/or 50,965 13,598 14,211 78,774 other known location and unknown other (3.6) (3.6) (4.3) (3.7) location Known other location 94,752 9,168 13,286 117,208 (6.6) (2.4) (4.0) (5.5) Unknown location 232,618 43,948 47,414 323,986 (16.2) (11.6) (14.3) (15.1) TOTAL 1,436,665 378,805 332,205 2,147,375 NOTE: Entire file contained 2,147,398, but 23 had an unknown component. SOURCE: Defense Manpower Data Center. SUMMARY The chapter describes the basic characteristics of all those deployed in support of OEF and/or OIF between September 11, 2001, and December 31, 2010. Of the 2.15 million who were deployed during that period, over half were in the Army—nearly one-third in the regular Army alone—and those in the National Guard and reserves combined constituted one-third of those deployed. Over 85% of those deployed were enlisted, and 12% were women, including 20% of the junior officers in the Air Force. The average age of those deployed was 33.4 years—from an average of 29.5 years in the Marine Corps to an average of 35.8 years in the Air Force. Those deployed from the reserves and National Guard were older. Over two-thirds had a high-school degree or equivalent, and over 30% had at least some college education. Nearly 60% of those

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46 RETURNING HOME FROM IRAQ AND AFGHANISTAN deployed were married, and nearly half had dependent children, 1.97 on average. By the end of 2010, the 2.15 million service members had been deployed an average of 1.7 times: 57% once, 27% twice, 10% three times, and 6% four or more times. Those in the National Guard and reserves had fewer multiple deployments than those in the regular component. The average length of deployments was 7.7 months—from an average of 4.5 months in the Air Force to an average of 9.4 months in the Army. The average cumulative length of deployments of multiple deployers was 16.9 months. The average dwell time between deployments was 21 months. REFERENCE Bonds, T. M., D. Baiocchi, and L. L. McDonald. 2010. Army Deployments of OIF and OEF. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation.