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INDEX absorption, 70 absorption-adsorption nonmetabolic' 104 Acari (see mites) acetylene, microbial destruction, 97-98 acid deposition, aluminum concentrations, 124 acid precipitation, 9, 84, 128 acidification acceleration, 180 Adirondack Mountains, New York, 154 adverse effects, 167 agricultural crops, 167 air pollution, 15 aluminum compounds solubility, 172 amorphous aluminum hydroxide, 172 aquatic ecosystems, 19, 107-108, 129 causes, 140-149 crop damage, 167 ecological effects, 181 ecosystems, 132, 142 environmental quality erosion, 133, 136 Europe, 121 fish effects, 99-100, 131 forests, 167, 171 fossil fuel combustion, 140 gibbsite, 172 hydrogen ions retention, 170 kaolinite, 172 lakes, 121 leaching, 179 233 Leeds, England, 17 mercury emissions problems, 157 nitrate runoff, 100 nitric acid, 47 nitrogen cycle, 170 nitrogen oxides, 130 North America, 121 plant processes tolerance, 116 polyvalent metals, 176 production, 3 receptor ecosystems, 124 Scandinavia, 167 simulated, 168-169 soft-water ecosystems destruction, 2 soil, 170, 173 sources, 142 terrestrial ecosystems, 19, 105, 129-130 watersheds, 129 (see also precipitation; rain) acid rain (see acid precipita- tion) acid soil (see soil) acidification, 100 ammonification, 161 anthropogenic, 180 aquatic microbial communities' 164 atmospheric depositions, 120 chlorophyte domination, 161 detrimental effects, 179 ecosystems, 149, 179-180 experimental, 100

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234 fresh waters, 100 freshwater streams, 121 fulvic acid stability reduction, 176 ground waters, 121 indicator, 129 lakes, 100, 164 lead, 176 microbial denitrification, 161 minerals, 151 natural, 180 nickel, 176 Vitrification, 161 North America, 153 organisms, 161 pH levels effects, 176 polluted humus, 176 process, 148 rate, 100 Scandinavia, 153 soil, 120, 172, 176, 179 sulfur deposition, 100 vanadium, 176 zinc, 176 acidity, lakes, 102, 147, 149 acute toxicants (see toxicants) Adirondack Mountains, New York acid rain, 154 fish kills, 164 nitrate concentrations, 100 pH declines in lakes, 152 adsorption, 70 toxic compounds, 131 aerosols, 88 atmospheric processes, 41 droplets, 64 gas-to-particle conversion, 65 hydroscopic, 72 outer plant surfaces reaction, 90 oxidation, 66 primary, 35 residence times, 74 secondary, 35 urban, 101 water surface film trapment, 88-91 Africa DOT transport, 59 eolian transport, 15 agricultural burning anthropogenic emissions, 54 particulate organic fluxes, 56 agricultural crops acid rain, 167 agricultural research, 22 air (see atmosphere) air pollution acid rain, 1 5 coal combustion, 20 corrosion, 20 cycle linkages, 131 health effects, 20 human health, 20 international trans- boundary, 19 lichens, 20 Manchester, England, 20 smokestacks, 20 vegetation, 20 (see also pollutants; pollution) air quality environmental effects, 30 gaseous reactive hydro- carbons, 54 urban areas, 54 wood burning effects, 30 air-sea interface, mercury, 28 air-water interface, 101, 131 aquatic ecosystems, 87 alcohols, 65 aldehydes, 65 diesel vehicle exhaust, 56 gasoline-alcohol fuels, 56 alfisols, 172 algae, 101, 161 ammonium, 91 carbon dioxide, 91 green, 113 heavy metals, 113 nitrate, 91 sulfate content, 91, 111 Zygnema, 161 Zygogonium, 161 algal fixation in Lake Erie, 25 aliphatics, 96 alkanes transformations, 96 alkylamines, microbial activity, 24

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235 aluminum, 157 acid rain, 172 amorphous hydroxide, 172 concentrations, 124 hydrogen ion solubility effects, 108-111 in fish, 164 in sediments, 161 leaching, 173 oxides mobilization, 176 poisoning of brook trout, 103-104 surface water, 124 toxic concentrations, 167 toxicity, 111, 120 amelioration, 181-182 amines, 65 formation, 24 soils, 24 ammonia animal manure, 24 atmosphere, 24 concentrations isopleths, 150 deposition flux, 70 gaseous ammonia, 84, 120 mean annual concentrations in precipitation, 150 microbial action, 24 microbial oxidation, 23 Vitrification, 149 sheep urine, 24 ammonia carbonate, 15 ammonification acidification, 161 soil, 179 ammonium, in algae and aquatic plants, 91 ammonium sulfate aerosols, 120 amoebae, 101 amorphous aluminum hydroxide acid rain, 172 Anacapa Island, California brown pelican populations, 117 anaerobic environments metallic sulfides, 120 anaerobic habitats volatile sulfides, 120 ~ anaeroblosls denitrification, 23 animal manure ammonia, 24 decomposition, 26 animal phyla protein, 114 animals biological consequences, 126 cadmium-lead synergism, 111 gaseous emissions effects, 105 metals synergism effects, 111 teratogenicity, 111 toxic substance deposition, 104 trace metals content, 104 anoxic environments recycling, 93 anoxic hypolimnia, denitrification, 25 anoxic sediments, 132 antagonisms, atmospheric pollutants, 108, 124 Antarctic, ice sheets, 2 anthropogenic emissions, 91 agricultural burning, 54 atmospheric nitrous hydrocarbons, 124 atmospheric nitrous oxides, 124 fossil fuels pollution, 1 gaseous organics, 54 global, 47, 54 nitrogen oxides, 47 organic carbon particles, 54 organic compounds, 54 particulate organic carbon, 54 anticyclonic conditions Europe, 60 North America, 60 antimony metals flux, 50 trace metals, 28 APEX (see Atmospheric Precipitation Experiment) aquatic ecosystems, 108-114 accumulation, 88-93 acidification, 164 acid rain, 19, 107-108, 129 air-water interface, 87 ammonia content, 93-94

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236 atmospheric deposition, 99-100 degradation in Belgium, 3 Desulfovibrio, 27 dimethyl sulfide, 93 ethylene, 97 eutrophic, 91 flux rates, 94 freshwater plankton, calcium content, 111 historical records, 95 hydrogen sulfide content, 93-94 litter decomposition, 95 methylated metals content, 93-94 microbial communities, 164 molecular nitrogen content, 93-94 nitrogen, 25 nitrous oxide content, 93-94 pollutants, 94 pollution dispersion, 91 poorly buffered, 149 recovery, 100 sediment-to-water partition, 94 surface film, 101 transfers, 99-100 aquatic food chain mercury concentration, 103 zinc concentration, 103 aquatic fungi acid tolerance, 95 aquatic organisms bottom-living, 94 in acidified lakes, 164 mercury retention, 113-114 metallothionein synthesis, 113, 114 pollution ingestion, 94 toxic metals resistance, 114 (see also aquatic plants) aquatic plankton, 128 aquatic plants ammonium, 91 carbon dioxide, 91 nitrate, 91 nitrogen requirements, 101 sulfate, 91 (see also aquatic organisms) atmosphere aquatic sediments accumulation, 93-95 historical records, 95 long-term sinks, 93 aquatic systems mercury content, 28 aqueous solubility, 124 aqueous-lipid partitioning, 124 Arctic icecap chemical deposition, 136 arctic lake, methane discharge, 91 aromatic hydrocarbon, 66 aromatic molecules transformations, 96 aromatics' 65 arsenic, 4, 103 biological cycle, 31 livestock poisoning, 18 metals flux, 50 plant surface entry, 88 toxicity, 113 trace metals, 28 Asellus aquaticus low-water hardness tolerance, 112 ash in acid rain, 17 Astacus astacus, 161, 164 Atlantic Ocean carbonyl sulfide in air, 27 eolian transport, 15 above Lake Michigan, 133 ammonia, 24 ammonia carbonate, 15 anthropogenic constituents, 56 anthropogenic emission, 35 biogenic emissions, 22 carbon dioxide, 2, 91 carcinogens, 121 chemical equilibrium, 62-63 chemical reactivity, 72 denitrification, 176 deposition processes, 74 deposits, 99 discharge, 2 disequilibrium, 62 elements mobilization, 51 fossil fuel burning, 50

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7 / gaseous organzas photooxidation, 65 gaseous pollutants, 105 heterogeneous processes, 66 human alterations, 13-19 hydrocarbons emissions, 32 interfaces, 122 mercury content, 107 mercury removal, 77 metabolic by-products, 27 metals, 28 methane, 64 mutagens, 121 organic compounds, 96 organic pollutants removal, 57 organochlorines, 59 overview, 1 oxidation reactions, 62-63 oxygen, 60 particles, 72 plumes, 60 pollutants, 36, 58, 107 radionuclides, 117 radon, 59 rain, 77 removal processes, 72 resorb and recycle materials, 93 selenium, 29 smelter emissions, 57 substances residence times, 74-84 sulfur content, 42, 70 sulfuric acid, 15 teratogens, 121 toxic heavy metals fallout, 121 toxic substances, 77 trace organic pollutants, 107 volatile components, 95 atmosphere-biospbere interaction, 36, 120 deposition processes, 57-86 global exchanges, 101 historical overview, 9-13 reactivity, 59 solubility, 59 synergistic relationships, 59 transformation, 57-86 transport, 57-86 atmosphere-biosphere system, 123 atmosphere-water interaction, 101 atmosphere-water interface, 74 atmospheric constituents residence times, 57 atmospheric contaminants biological accumulation, 87-119 deposition, 60 terrestrial ecosystems, 87 atmospheric deposition, 77-84, 101 acidification, 120 biological effects prediction, 122 ecological effects, 77 freshwater ecosystems, 131 terrestrial ecosystem, 131 atmospheric emissions fossil fuel burning, 38-56 natural biomass burning, 30-32 trace metals, 50 (see also atmospheric pollutants; atmospheric pollution) atmospheric haze, 15 atmospheric hydrocarbons fluorine, 130 sulfur dioxide, 130 trace metals, 130 atmospheric nitrous hydrocarbons, 124 atmospheric nitrous oxides, 124 atmospheric particulates formation, 14 atmospheric pollutants carbon dioxide, 120 ecosystems, 130 global distribution, 1 lichens, 130 mosses, 130 nitrogen oxides, 120 atmospheric pollution bogs, 180 forecasting, 7 monitoring, 7 atmospheric precipitation, 12 acid content, 84

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238 chemistry, 19 Atmospheric Precipitation Experiment, 85 atmospheric processes, 59 aerosols, 41 photochemical reactions, 41 atmospheric substances, anthropogenic sources, 35-56 atmospheric sulfur (see sulfur) atmospheric temperature variation, 59 atmospheric transport, 85, 126, 131-132 Australia, ammonia flux, 24 biosphere automobiles (see vehicles exhaust) autotrophic nitrifying bacteria, 23 bacteria, 94, 101 acid tolerance, 95 (see also soils) barium, fossil fuel mobilization, 50 toxicity, 113 trace metals, 28 Barrow, Alaska atmospheric sulfate, 137 atmospheric vanadium, 137 baseline monitoring, 136 biota beech Fagus sylvatica, 173 beetles, 94 Belgium, aquatic ecosystems degradation, 3 benthic crustacea, 161 Gammarus lacustris, 128 benthic organisms, heavy metals toxicity, 111 benzota~pyrene, antbropogenic sources, 131, 54 beryllium, trace metals, 28 bicarbonate solution, titration, 148 bioassay methodologies, 132 bioconcentration, 128 bioexcluded toxic elements, 103 biogenic emissions in atmosphere, 22 biogeochemical cycling, ecological effects, 126 biogeochemical reservoirs, global interactions, 123 biological methylation, 28 biological nitrogen fixation, ecosystems, 22 biology, 8 biomagnification, 128-129, 131 biomagnification-food chain relationship, 103, 125 biomass burning emission composition, 32 nitrogen oxides emissions, 47 acid effects, 149-181 atmospheric contaminants accumulation, 74 chemical elements behavior, 124 degradation, 136 deposition processes, 74 fossil fuels, 2 human health effects, 47 interfaces, 122 nitrogen oxides emissions effects, 47 overview, 1 pollutants, 107 reduction reactions, 63-64 acids production, 179 ecology, 8, 101 physiological parameters, 103 survival, 121 temperature dependence, 104 bioturbation, 94 birds, selenium concentration, 113-114 bismuth metals flux, 50 trace metals, 28 blood chemistry, copper toxicity, 107 blood-brain barrier, 114 blue-green algae, 25 heavy metal toxicity, 111 bog moss, Sphagnum, 149, 180 bogs sediments, methane generation, 32

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239 sulfuric acid generation, 152 waters, 149, 152 bone metabolization, 103 boron, trace metals, 28 Boston-Washington corridor, nitrogen oxide emissions, 41 Brachinecta paludosa, 164 bracken fern, gametophyte fertilization, 167 Britain (see Great Britain) British Isles (see Great Britain) brook trout aluminum poisoning, 103-104 hydrogen ions, 104 brown pelicans, 117 bryophytes liverworts, 128 mosses, 128 stresses, 130 sulfur dioxide damage, 105 trace metals, 128 urban areas, 128 cadmium, 111, 173 concentrations in fishes, 3 detergents mixture, 113 Greenland glaciers, 136 in animals, 111 in Lake Michigan, 4, 5 in sediments, 161 in Swedish rain, 173 lakes, 157 lead synergism, 111 metals flux, 50 organism exposure, 113 Pimephales ~romelas, 114 streams, 157 synergistic interactions, 108 toxic concentrations, 107 toxicity, 113-114 trace metals, 28 worldwide emissions flux, 50 calcicoles, 170 calcifuges, 170 Calcite Saturation Index, 181 calcium, 103 aluminum uptake, 111 carcinogens Canada aquatic freshwater plankton, 111 as an ameliorative, 111 in Swedish lakes, 155 lake sediments, 100 leaching, 173 low pH, 111 nutrient elements, 120 requirements, 101 ammonia concentrations, 150 aquatic ecosystems degradation, 3 Arctic tundra, 130 ecosystem acidification, 149 environmental quality erosion, 136 precipitation pH, 81 satellite plume observations, 61 sulfur dioxide damage, 105 Canadian Department of Fisheries & Oceans, 182 Canadian Network for Sampling Precipitation, 81, 150 carbon, 91 bioconcentration, plants, 101 particulate organic, 54 carbon dioxide algae, 91 aquatic plants, 91 atmosphere, 2, 91 atmospheric pollutants, 120 global atmosphere, 13 pollutant, 4 carbon disulfide, 26 conversion, 98-99 carbon monoxide atmospheric source, 66 plants reaction, 88 soils interaction, 97 carbonates, weathered, 172 carbonyl sulfide, 26, 98, 99 carbonyls, 65 carboxylic acids formation, 66 hydrocarbon pbotooxidation, 66 atmosphere, 121

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240 compounds, 131 micropollutants, 4 Caribbean DOT transport, 59 carnivores, 131 carnivorous fish bioconcentration, 104 mercury concentrations, 104 Catastomas commersoni, 119 catfish, PCB concentrations, 107 cation exchange neutral salts, 172 cement industry production, 56 production of heavy metals, 132 trace metals, 56 trace metals fluxes, 50 volatile oxides emissions, 53 cereal crops dry deposition resistance, 75 cesium residence times, 128 Chaoborus larvae, 167 charcoals concentration, 134 Lake Michigan, 134 strata deposits, 133 chelate metals, 113 chemical reactivity in atmosphere, 72 chemicals, biodegraded, 96 China fossil fuel consumption, 38 coal nuclear device detonation, 59 Chinook salmon, PCB concentrations, 107 chironomids, in acidified lake sediments, 167 Chlorella, heavy metals concentrations, 114 chlorides in acid rain, 17 systematic studies, 12 chlorinated aromatics, 96 chlorinated hydrocarbons, 14 pollutant resistance, 114 chlorophytes, 161 chromium, 173 in Swedish rain, 173 toxicity, 113 trace metals, 28 chrysophyceans, 161 Chrysophyta, 128 silicon concentration, 101 Cladonia, 128 clays minerals in soils, 99 nonmetabolic absorption - adsorption, 104 climate changes, 2 ecosystems, 143 oscillations, 122 warming, 14 clouds coal condensation nuclei, 70 pollutants, 77 gasification, 54, 56 particulate organic carbon fluxes, 56 phenols, 56 toxic metals enrichment, 35 U.S. reserves, 38 coal combustion air pollution, 20 nitrogen oxides linkage, 119-120 processes, 132 products, 124 sulfur oxides linkage, 119-120 consumption commercial heating, 38 electric utilities, 38, 40 oven coke production, 38 railroads, 38, 40 residential heating, 38 United States, 40 coastal bays DOT toxicity, 115 halogenated hydrocarbon toxicity, 115 coastal environments heavy metals, 131 pollutants, 132 coastal sediments, nitratre reduction, 26

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241 cobalt in sediments, 161 soil accumulation' 99 trace metals, 28 cobalt-60 particulate matter absorption, 93 Coho salmon, PCB concentrations, 107 cold extremes stresses, 130 Collembola, 179 combustion processes, 132 condensed hydrocarbons, atmospheric visibility, 14 copper, 4 forests, 173 freshwater fish, 107 in sediments, 161 in Sudbury soils, 108 in Swedish rains, 173 organism exposure, 113 Pimephales promelas, 114 rainbow trout exposure, 113 soil accumulation, 99 toxicity, 111, 114 trace metals, 28 worldwide emissions flux, 58 corals, sedimentary record, 132 corixids, 167 corrosion, air pollution, 20 crabs DOT toxicity, 115 halogenated hydrocarbon toxicity, 115 crayfish Astacus astacus, 161, 164 Orconectes virilis, 161, 164 crops acid rain, 167 field-grown, 169 greenhouse, 168 crustaceans, 128, 161 calcium concentrations, 111 Daphnia, 164 hydrogen ions sensitivity, 111 larvae, 101 pH tolerances, 163 planktonic, 164 pollutant ingestion, 94 cyanophytes, 161 cycle linkages, air pollution, 131 cyclic monoterpenes, photooxidation, 66, 67 cyclic olefins, 66 . cypr~n~c Rutilus rutilus, 164 dairy cattle manure production 24 Daphnia magna, 164 Daphnia middendorfiana, 164 - DDE in marine ecosystem, 117 DOT Africa, transport, 59 biological effects, 115 blood-brain barrier effects, 114 deposition flux, 70 in atmosphere, 14 in fish, 94-95 insecticide, 115 marine ecosystem, 117 membrane barrier, 114 myelin, 114 predatory birds, 103 sediment concentration, 94 decomposition of soil, 179 deep ocean, inert substances accumulation, 93 denitrification, 22 acidification, 176 anaerobiosis, 23 anoxic hypolimnia, 25 atmosphere, 176 inorganic nitrogen, 23 so~l, 179 soil acidification, 100 suppression, 100 denitrification rates - soil pH correlation, 178 Denmark, aguatic ecosystems degradation, 3 deposition, 66-70, 126 atmospheric-resistance controlled, 74 atmospheric transport, 85 dry processes, 66-70, 72 lead, 82 measurement, 70 particles, 73

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242 plants, 73 rate, 70 surface-resistance controlled, 74 trees, 71 turbulent transfer, 72 wet processes, 66-70 zinc, 82 desert regions, sulfur dioxide from smelters, 130 Desulfovibrio - aquatic ecosystems, 27 detergents anionic, 113 cadmium, 113 mercury, 113 nonionic, 113 dew, 66-70 ~ d~am~ne microbial activity, 24 diatoms, 161 heavy metal toxicity, 111 silicon concentration, 101 diesel, 54 fuel soot particles, 131 vehicles, 56 diethyl disulfide, 26 diffusion, 59-60 dimethyl disulfide, 26, 98, 99 dimethyl mercury sediments, 160 dimethyl sulfide, 26, 27, 99 dimethyl sulfoxide, 27 dimethylselenide, 29 drainage basin, 100 drinking water quality, 100 droughts, 2 stresses, 130 dytiscid beetles, 167 Earth Research Technology Satellite, 60-61 earthworms, 94 ecological reserves, 136 ecological toxicity, 59 acid rain, 181 ecology, 8 biota, 101 (see also ecosystem entries) ecosystems acidification, 149, 179-180 aerosol entry, 88 antbropogenic, 121-128, 143 aquatic, 149 atmospheric pollutants, 130 biogeocbemistry, 179 biological nitrogen fixation, 22 biotic effects, 143 climatic effects, 143 diverse interactions, 120 educational programs needed, 8 forests, 170 fossil fuel combustion, 104 freshwater, 149 geologic effects, 143 identification, 7 linked emissions, 120 long-term studies, 136 natural, episodic effects, 143 pathways, 126 research techniques needed, 8 stress responses, 129 taxonomy, 136 topographic conditions, 143 ecotoxicology, long-term, 7 eel, PCB concentrations, 107 electric utilities coal consumers, 38 coal use, 40 sulfur oxide emissions, 41, 43 elements, biointermediate and biologically inert, 103 emissions, 126 anthropogenic, 41 control technology, 36 energy-related, 36-38 flux, 38 global atmosphere, 49 hydrogen sulfide, 26 natural, 41 nitrogen oxide, 3, 41 sulfur, 3 trace metals, 47 volatile oxides, 53 Enchytraeidae, 179 endothermic reactions, 63

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243 energy air pollution, historical overview, 19-21 flow, ecological effect- 126 flux density, 38, 39 fossil fuel consumption, 36 production worldwide, 37 England {see Great Britain) environmental engineering, 8 environmental monitoring, material accounting principles, 84 Environmental Protection Agency, 8, 41 environmental quality, fossil fuel use, 38 enzymes, metal exposure, 114 eolian transport, biogenic dust, Africa, 15 epidermal pores, aerosol entry, 88 epilimnion-sediments reaction, 93 epiphytic lichens, 131 ERTS (see Earth Research Technology Satellite) esters transformations, 65, 96 estuarine environments, 131-132 ethane, 28 ethyl mercaptan, 26 ethyl methyl sulfide, 26 ethylamine, microbial activity, 24 ethylene aquatic ecosystems, 97 plant hormone, 90 soils interaction, 97 Europe acid rain, 121 anticyclonic conditions, 60 fossil fuel combustion, 56 fossil fuel consumption, 36 eutrophic lakes denitrification, 25 exothermic chemistry, 63 Experimental Lakes area, Ontario acid rain, 154 ~ r Fagus sylvatica, 173 fairy shrimp Brachinecta Paludosa. 164 fathead minnow Pimephales promelas, 164 fauna, 131 Fayetteville, Arizona nuclear fallout, 59 feather moss Hyloconium splendens, 128 fine particulate pollutants, atmospheric visibility, 14 fir trees exudates, 28 fire stresses, 130 fish, 94 acid rain, 99-100, 131 aluminum toxicity, 164 chlorinated hydrocarbons accumulations, 125 DOT toxicity, 115 egg Matchability, 165 halogenated hydrocarbon toxicity, 115 in acidified lakes, 164 kills, 164 lead content effects, 107 life cycle, 164 mercury accumulation, 125, 131 mercury bioaccumulation, 113-114 mercury concentrations, 4, 107 mortality, 99 occurrence, 166 pH values, 164 populations, 164 selenium concentration, 113-114 toxic metals resistance, 114 floating aquatic plants Lemna valdiviana, 111 Salvinia natans, 111 fluorine, atmospheric hydrocarbons, 130 fluxes aquatic ecosystems, 94 natural, 122 fog, 66-70 foliar lesions, nitrogen thresholds, 106 food chains, 128 biomagnification, 125 leaf litter, 131

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254 gaseous organics, 64, 65 isoprene, 67 e-butane, 67 toluene, 67 photosynthesis depression, 128 large-scale exchange, 90 light dependence of phytoplankton, 104 Phoxinus pboxinus, 164 phyllopod Lepidurus arcticus, 161, 164 physico-cbemical environment, properties effects, 127 phytoplankton arsenic concentrations, 103 growth, 94 in acid lakes, 161 light dependence, 104 metals concentration, 103 metals Volubility, 101 phosphorus concentrations, 103 production, 157 toxicity, 111 Pimephales promelas acidification, 129 cadmium exposure, 114 copper exposure, 114 disappearance, 167 zinc exposure, 114 pine trees exudates, 28 Pinus strobus . pollutants interactions, 108 sulfur dioxide damage, 105 Pisum sativum, 110 pollutants interactions, 108 planetary atmosphere warming, 120 planetary boundary layer structure, 59-60 plankton chrysophyceans elimination, 161 diatoms elimination, 161 pollutants absorption, 91 plant hormone, ethylene, 90 plant phyla, protein, 114 plants aerosol entry, 88 annual, 131 biological consequences, 126 carbon bioconcentration, 101 deposition, 73 fungi, 94 grasses, 130 metabolic effects, 106 nitrogen, 103 nitrogen thresholds, 106 nutrients, 3, 101 pH responses, 170 phosphorus, 103 phosphorus bioconcentration, 101 photochemical oxidents damage, 105 pollutants, 108 populations, 131 roots, 93 sedges, 130 smelters effects, 131 sulfur accumulation, 70 surface-gases interactions, 90 toxic substance deposition, 104 trace metals content, 104 plasmalemma copper-nickel synergism effects, Ill plumes, 60-61 POC {see particulate organic carbon) podzol acid, 172 pollination, 115 pollutants accumulation, 93 aquatic ecosystems, 94 atmosphere, 36 atmospheric effects, 123 atmospheric residence times, 59 bioconcentrated, 101 bioexcluded, 101 biological effects, 115 biological responses, 104 biosphere, 108 chemical characteristics, 77 cloud, 77 coal-smoke, 115 coastal environments, 132 dispersion, 58

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255 pollution ecological effects, 122, 126-127, 133 energy related, 4, 7 estuarine environments, 132 exchange, 89 fat-soluble, 129 gaseous, 56, 66, 75 health-related, 41 individual organisms, 101-117 interactions, 108, 110 leaf surfaces, 115 life cycle effects, 114-115 linkages, 119-120 measurements, 60 physical characteristics, 77 plants, 88, 108 precipitation, 59 rain, 59 rain drops, 77 resistance, 114-115 studies, 1 susceptibility, 115 synergistic effects, 108 terrestrial ecosystems, 87 toxicity, 7 transfers, 122 transport, 60 transport distances, 59 turbulent diffusion, 59 vertical wind shear, 59 wood combustion, 33 (see also air pollution) aquatic ecosystems, 91 large-scale monitoring, 133-139 natural records, 132-133 (see also air pollution) polybrominated biphenyls sediment concentration, 94 polychlorinated biphenyls dispersal, 107 in fish, 94-95 sediment concentration, 94 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), 120 health effects, 54 health hazard, 56 particulate emissions, 56 transformations, 96 polynuclear aromatic compounds, sediment concentration, 94 polyvalent metals, acid rain, 176 potassium leaching, 173 nutrient elements, 120 power plants emissions, 3 radionuclides, 117 tall stacks, 146 precipitation acid rain, 3 ammonia content, 24 hydrochloric acid, 18 lead deposition, 82 metals concentrations, 83 pH, 81 pH in rain, 18 pH values, 140 phosphorus, 161 pollutants, 59 regimes, 100 scavenging, 72 strong acids addition, 172 sulfate deposition, 4 sulfuric acid supply, 153 urban, 18 zinc deposition (see also acid precipitation; rain), 82 predatory birds, DOT effects, 103 protein, animal-plant phyla, 144 Quebec, mercury concentrations, 4 radioactive substances biological residence time, 103 radionuclides atmosphere, 117 food ingestion, 117 power plants, 117 radium, 103 bone deposits, 124 cancerous shell deposits, 124 radon atmosphere, 59 railroads coal consumption, 38, 40

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256 rain atmosphere, 77 chemical composition, 16 chemistry patterns, 15 nitric acid content, 19 pollutants, 59 rain drops, 70 pollutants, 77 rainbow trout, copper exposure effects, 113 rainwater, soil percolation, 120 reactivity, 57 regimes, precipitation, 100 removal, processes (see deposition) reservoirs, sedimentary record, 132 residence times cesium, 128 in organisms, 124 models, 74 respiration copper toxicity, 107 large-scale exchange, 90 Rhizobium, 176 - nitrogen fixation, 176 Rocky Mountains sulfur dioxide emissions, 41 sulfur dioxide emissions from coal and oil, 41 Rutilus rutilus, 164 ryegrass, coal smoke effects, 115 Saint Lawrence River, sediment cores, 95 salmonids, 164 salt marshes, 27 salts, leaf surfaces, 115 Salvinia natans, 111 saprophytic organisms, 94 satellites ERTS photography, 60-61 Saviann River pH values, 137 Scandinavia, 161, 164 acid rain, 167 acidification, 153 ecosystem acidification, 149 environmental quality erosion, 136 fish kills, 164 forests, 167 groundwater acidification, 121 precipitation pH, 107, 145 sensitive roach, 164 scavenging precipitation, 72 Scenedesmus heavy metals concentrations, 114 Scotland aquatic ecosytems degrada- tion, 3 chemistry of air and rain, 15 ecosystem acidification, 149 sea level rise, 2 sea water trace metals, 132 sea-surface microlayer (see neuston) sedimentary microorganisms, 120 sedimentary sinks, 120 sediments aluminum content, 161 anoxic, 132 DOT concentration, 94 dimethyl mercury, 160 in fish, 94-95 Lake Michigan, 132 lakes, 100, 167 littoral, 161 mercury, 131 methylated mercury contents, 28 Mougeotia, 161 organic, 160 pH decrease, 100 pollutants, 94 saprophytic organisms, 94 seed germination arrested, 17 seed pods reduction, 167 seed production, sulfur dioxide damage, 105 selenium, 4 amelioration, 113 atmosphere, 29 enhanced concentrations, 113-114

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257 methylation, 94, 103 organism exposure, 113 plant surface entry, 88 toxic effects, 104 selenium-mercury interaction, 113-114, 124 selenoproteins, 113 Semotilus margarita, 167 sensitive roach Rutilus rutilus, 164 shale oil, 54 sheep, ammonia in urine, 24 shells metabolization, 103 Sierra Nevada, California, acid rain r 154 silica in Swedish lakes, 161 silicon, 101, 162 silver metals flux, 50 organism exposure, 113 toxicity, 113 trace metals, 28 skatole, microbial activity, 24 skin tumors (see papillomas) smelters fumigations, 173 lake contamination, 111 metal, 120, 122 nitrogen oxides linkage, 119-120 particles emission, 57 plant populations, 131 Sudbury, 111 sulfur dioxide emissions, 130 sulfur oxides linkage, 119-120 Sweden, 18 smelting heavy metals, 132 smokestacks air pollution, 20 sodium, trace metals, 28 soil, 129 accumulation, 93-95 acid input response, 101 acidity, 170, 172 acid rain, 170, 173 acidification, 120, 172, 176, 179 adsorbed sulfates, 175 aluminum buffering, 100 amines, 24 ammonia loss, 23, 24 ammonification, 179 arsenicals treated, 30 bacteria, 96 brown forest, 172 calcareous, 100, 170 carbon disulfide removal, 98-99 carbonyl sulfide removal, 98-99 clay minerals, 99 decomposition, 179 denitrification, 179 dimethyl disulfide removal, 98-99 dimethyl sulfide removal, 99 erosion, 122 fertility, 172 forest, bacteria, 179 humic acids, 176 humus layer, 131 hydrogen sulfide emissions, 26 hydrogen sulfide removal, 98, 99 manganese concentrations, 170 mercury, 131 mercury content, 28 metal output, 170 methyl mercaptan removal, 98-99 microbial action, 24 microbial processes, 176 mineral, 176 neutral, 170 nitric oxide production, 23 vitrification, 179 nitrous oxide production, 23 nitrogen fixation reduction, 176 nitrogen heterocycles, 24 noncalcareous, 172 organic nitrogen compounds, 24 particulate dusts, 84 pH decline, 172

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258 pH levels, 100 pH reduction, 176 pollutants accumulation, 93 pollutants interaction, 108 rainwater percolation, 120 recycling nutrients, 94 sandy, 172 saprophytic organisms, 94 selenate content, 29 selenite content, 29 selenium content, 29 Sudbury, 108 sulfate adsorption, 173 sulfuric acid effects, 18 Sweden, 173 temperature effects, 28 trace metals concentrations, 107 transformations, 95-99 volatile products, 22 volatile products gener_ tion, 32 volatile sulfur, 26 waterlogged, 94 soil acidification denitrification, 100 soil clays lead adsorption, 120 soil ecosystem microorganisms, 22 soil fungi acid tolerance, 95 mycorrhiza, 170 soil leaching, 3 solar radiation beating turbulence, 59 solubility meteorological factors, 72 soluble gases, 72 soot in acid rain, 17 soot particles, 131 Soviet Union ecosystem acidifi- cation, 149 soybeans, 167 Sphagnum, 149, 180 bogs, 93 spodsol, 172 spring melt, 100 springtails, 94, 179 STATE (see Sulfur Transport and Transformation in the Environment) stomata! pores, aerosol entry, 88 stratosphere aerosol formation, 41 photochemical reactions, 41 stratospheric ozone layer depletion, 14 streams cadmium, 157 DOT toxicity, 115 halogenated hydrocarbon toxicity, 115 lead, 157 manganese, 157 nickel, 157 zinc, 157 a- stresses bryophytes, 130 cold extremes, 130 drought, 130 fire, 130 gamma radiation, 130 land oil spills, 130 lichens, 130 sulfur dioxide, 130 temperate forests, 130-131 tropical forests, 130-131 vegetative reproduction, 130 wind exposure, 130 strontium, 103 bone deposits, 124 cancerous shell deposits, 124 mollusks, 103 trace metals, 28 structure, ecological effects, 126 sucker fish Lake Ontario, 119 lip cancer, 119 Sudbury, Ontario, 173 acid rain, 154 copper, 108 lake contamination, 111 soil, 108

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259 smelter, 99, 111 sulfate aerosols, 62, 63 algae, 91 aquatic plants, 91 Greenland glaciers, 136 Sulfate Regional Experiment, 85 sulfates atmospheric visibility, 14 deposition, 100 sulfides, 65 sulfur atmosphere, 42, 70, 76 deposition, 100 emissions, ~ impediments, 91 in acid rain, 17 plant surface entry, 88 terrestrial ecosystems, 26 sulfur budget, atmosphere, 42 sulfur compounds anthropogenic sources, 142 atmospheric residue time, 65 sulfur dioxide atmospheric hydrocarbons, 130 fuel combustion, 41 fumigation, 19 gaseous pollutants, 56, 105 in atmosphere, 70 man-made sources, 41 Minnesota damage, 105 peas, 110 removal, 98 U.S. sources, 41 sulfur dioxide emission, 147 sulfur dioxide emissions industry, 41 Mississippi River, 41 Ohio River Valley, 41 Rocky Mountains, 41 sulfur dioxide pollutants, 105 sulfur dioxide pollution, lichens, 129 sulfur emissions anthropogenic increase, 142 sulfur oxide emissions, United States, 43, 44 sulfur oxides anthropogenic release, 120-121 coal combustion, 119-120 electric utilities, 41, 43 emissions, 41 industrial emissions, 142 pollutants, 144 regional acid rain problems, 147 Sulfur Transport and Trans- formation in the Environment, 85 sulfur-soil interaction, 98 sulfuric acid aerosol in atmosphere, 15, 70 SURE (see Sulfate Regional Experiment) surface film aquatic ecosystems, 101 atmospheric deposition, 101 oil spills, 101 toxic organic molecules, 101 surface soils pollutants accumulation, 94 surface water aluminum, 124 thermal stratification, 88 Sweden alkaline content of lakes, 155 aquatic ecosystems degradation, 3 calcium content of lakes, 155 chromium, 173 humus layers, 173 hydrogen ions in rivers, 136 lakes, 156, 161 lead loading assessments, 128 magnesium content of lakes, 155 mercury concentrations, 4 mercury concentrations in fish, 157 metals in lakes, 159 rain, 173 silica content in lakes, 161 silicon concentration in lakes, 162 smelters, 18 soil, 173 spruce forests, 173

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260 Switzerland MELIMEX study, 111 synergisms, 108 atmospheric pollutants, 124 talc, 14 tall stacks, power plants, 146 tar in acid rain, 17 tar sand exploitation, 54 taxonomy, ecosystem, 136 temperate forests stresses, 130-131 teratogens atmosphere, 121 micropollutants, terpenes, 65 from terrestrial vegetation, 32 production, 15 terrestrial ecosystems accumulation, 87 acid rain, 19, 105, 129-130 acidification transfers, 100 atmospheric contaminants, 87 atmospheric deposition, 99-100, 131 atmospheric gases access- ibility, 87 buffering, 100 calcium losses, 100 gaseous pollutants, 104-106 litter decomposition, 95 nitrogen content, 22 pollutants, 87 pollutants interactions, 108 precipitation pa, 100 resorb and recycle materials, 93 sulfate output, 100 sulfur, 26 transfers, 99-100 vegetation, 167-181 terrestrial plants, trace metals, 28 terrestrial reactions, 22 terrestrial soils aluminum leaching, 99-100 deposits, 99 iron concentrations, 27 terrestrial vegetation antagonisms, 108 pollutant interaction effects, 108 synergisms, 108 Texas, sulfur oxides emissions, 41 thallium, metals flux, 50 thermal stratification gas exchange barrier, 91 metalimnion, 96 surface waters, 88 thermocline, 91 tin metals flux, 50 toxicity, 113 trace metals, 28 titanium, trace metals, 28 tobacco cultivars, pollutants interactions, 108 Tokyo, Japan, nuclear fallout, 59 toluene aromatic hydrocarbon, 66 photooxidation, 67 toxic elements, bioexcluded, 103 toxic heavy metals fallout in atmosphere, 121 toxic metals interactions, 111 resistance, 114 toxic organic molecules surface film, 101 toxic substances atmosphere, 77 background concentrations, 124 biological residence time, 103 in animals, 104 toxicants micropollutants, 4 receptor ecosystems, 124 toxicology education, 8 trace elements transformations, 35 trace metals, 130 animals, 104 anthropogenic emissions, 52 antimony, 28 arsenic, 28 atmospheric emissions, 50

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261 atmospheric hydrocarbons, 130 beryllium, 28 bryophytes, 128 cement industry, 56 concentrations, 95 deposition, 1, 87-88 emissions, 47 fluxes, 50 fossil fuel combustion, 56 fresh water, 107 gaseous pollutants, 56 in lakes, 93 in plants and animals, 104 marine ecosystems, 132 methylation, 29 microorganisms relationship, 30 mobilization, 50 natural emissions, 52 nitrogen oxides linkage, 119-120 sea water, 132 sulfur oxides linkage, 119-120 Sweden rain, 173 terrestrial plants, 28 toxic concentrations, 107 vaporization, 50 volatilization, 29, 50 water-to-sediment transfer, 94 worldwide emissions, 52 trace organic compounds carcinogenic, 32 trace pollutants carcinogenic, 119 dispersal, 119 mutagenic, 119 toxic, 119 transformations, 60-66 transitional ecosystems, wetlands, 101 transport, 59-60 transport distance-residence time relationship, 122 trees deposition, 71 sulfur accumulation, 70 sedimentary record, 132 trichomes, aerosol entry, 88 trimethylamine, microbial activity, 24 tropical forests stresses, 130-131 troposphere aerosol formation, 41 clean, 64 gas-to-particle conversion, 65 nitrogen chemistry, 46 photochemical reactions, 41 trout, embryonic mortality, 164 turbulence solar radiation heating, 59 wind interaction, 59 wind shear, 59 turbulent diffusion pollutants, 59 turbulent transfer, 70 deposition, 72 diffusive transport, 70 gases, 70 United Nations fossil fuel use data, 38 United Nations Conference on the Human Environment, 19 United States ammonia concentrations, 150 aquatic ecosystems degradation, 3 atmospheric transport studies, 85 Bureau of Mines, 38 coal consumption, 40 coal reserves, 40 Dept. of Agriculture, 8 Dept. of Energy, 8 Dept. of Health and Human Services, 8 Dept. of the Interior, 8 deposition studies, 85 ecosystem acidification, 149 environmental quality erosion, 136 fossil fuel combustion, 47 Geological Survey, 8 lead deposition by precipitation, 82 mercury concentrations in fish, 157

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262 National Atmospheric Deposition Program, 24 nitrogen oxide emissions, 45, 48 nitrogen oxides, 44 nonmethane hydrocarbons, 54 precipitation pH, 81 Southwestern plants-smelters effects, 131 sulfur dioxide damage, 105 sulfur oxide emissions, 43, 44 zinc deposition by precipitation, 82 urban areas air quality, 54 bryophytes, 128 gaseous reactive hydro- carbons, 54 lichens, 128 vanadium, 173 acidification, 176 forests, 173 in Swedish rain, 173 trace metals, 28 vaporization, trace metals, 50 vegetation, 179 air pollution, 20 fumigation, 122 hydrocarbon photo- oxidation, 66 isoprene emission, 32 nitrogen oxides, 105 sulfur dioxide damage, 18 sulfur dioxide pollutants, 105 sulfur dioxide pollutants effects, 109 terpene emission, 32 terrestrial ecosystems, 167-181 volatile products generation, 32 vegetative reproduction, stresses 130 vehicle exhaust, 47, 119-120 vertebrates calcium requirements, 101 calcium uptake, 103 lead exclusion, 103 lead uptake, 103 radium uptake, 103 strontium uptake, 103 vertical wind shear pollutants, 59 Vesuvius, 18 viral diseases, copper exposure effects, 113 viscous boundary layer atmospheric resistance, 74 diffusion, 70 diffusive transport, 70 volatile dimethyl mercury, 120 volatile organic compounds, plant reaction, 88 volatile oxides emissions, 53 volatile products heavy metals, 32 nitrogen, 32 sulfur, 32 volatile sulfides, anaerobic habitats, 120 volatile sulfur compounds, 26 wallpaper arsenic content, 29 water calcium concentration, 100 pollutants interaction, 108 transformations, 95-99 water organisms arsenic concentrations, 103 biointermediate elements, 103 phosphorous concentrations, 103 water quality criteria, 111 water surface film aerosols, 88-91 atmospheric contaminants, 88 organic micropollutants, 88 trace metals content, 88-91 water surfaces, volatile products generation, 32 watersheds, 99 acid rain, 129 lakes, 100 Norway, 147 weathering. bydrogen-ion saturation, 172 inorganic soil calloids, 172

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263 iron reduction, 176 leaching, 173 nutrient loss, 174 organic acids, 176 polypbenols, 176 weathering processes elements mobilization, 51 geocbemical, 147 wetlands resorb and recycle materials, 93 transitional ecosystems, 101 white pines fumigation damage, 105 Pinus strobus, 105 white sucker Catastomas commersoni, 119 . Great Lakes, 119 whole watersheds long-term studies, 136 wind exposure, stresses, 130 wind shear, horizontal spreading of pollutants, 59 Windscale, England nuclear processing plant, 117 radionuclides, 117 wood woodlands as a fuel, 30 combustion pollution, 33 combustion processes, 132 resorb and recycle materials, 93 gamma radiation, 130 sulfur dioxide, 130 World Bank fossil fuel use data, 38 World Health Organization, 20 yttrium trace metals, 28 zinc, 103, 173 acidification, 176 aquatic food chain, 103 concentrations in fishes, 3 deposition, 82 forests, 173 hydrogen ion solubility effects, 108-111 in sediments, 161 in Swedish rain, 173 Lake Michigan, 4, 107 lakes, 157 metals flux, 50 mobilization rate, 28 organism exposure, 113 Pimenbales uromelas, 114 , streams, 157 toxic concentrations, 107 toxic elements, 120 toxicity, 111, 114 trace metals, 28 worldwide emissions flux, 50 ~ zirconium trace metals, 28 zooplank ton cadmium toxicity, 4 filter-feeding, 131 metals concentration, 103 soot particles, 131 toxic metals resistance, 114 zinc toxicity, 4 Zygnema, 161 Zygogonium, 161

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