From the natural environments to infectious disease. Nature Reviews Microbiology 2:95-108).

Proteomics: The analysis of the expression, localizations, functions, and interactiosn of the proteins expressed by the genetic material of an organism (American Heritage Science Dictionary. 2011. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company).

Public health: The art and science of dealing with the protection and improvement of community health by organized community effort and including preventive medicine and sanitary and social health.

Quorum sensing: Cell-cell communication system that allows bacteria to monitor population density and control of specific genes in a density dependent manner

Resistance: See Antibiotic resistance.

Ribonucleic acid (RNA): A biologically important type of molecule that consists of a long chain of nucleotide units. Each nucleotide consists of a nitrogenous base, a ribose sugar, and a phosphate. RNA is very similar to DNA, but differs in a few important structural details: in the cell, RNA is usually single-stranded, while DNA is usually double-stranded; RNA nucleotides contain ribose while DNA contains deoxyribose (a type of ribose that lacks one oxygen atom); and RNA has the base uracil rather than thymine that is present in DNA.

Ribosomal RNA (rRNA): A class of RNA molecules, coded in the nucleolar organizer that has an integral (but poorly understood) role in ribosome structure and function. RNA components of the subunits of the ribosomes.

Salmonella: A group of bacteria that cause typhoid fever, food poisoning, and enteric fever from contaminated food products.

Shiga toxin–producing Escherichia coli (STEC): A type of enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) bacteria that can cause illness ranging from mild intestinal disease to severe kidney complications. Other types of enterohemorrhagic E. coli include the relatively important serotype E. coli O157:H7, and more than 100 other non-O157 strains.

Shotgun metagenome: See Metagenomics.

Superorganism: A social colony of individuals who, through division of labor, effective communication and self-organization, form a highly connected



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