with unique challenges, that could benefit from research and interventions beyond those developed for African American and Hispanic American males. Furthermore, Native American males share a lack of visibility and are often misrepresented and least understood because of widespread lack of knowledge about the diversity of tribal nations in the United States. At the individual level, they have somewhat fluid definitions of who they are—how they self-identify—and this can impact how society views them.
Some participants did not believe it was appropriate for Native Americans and Pacific Islanders to be placed in a single breakout group and argued for distinctions among Native Americans, Native Pacific Islanders, and Asians to recognize their unique issues. Native Pacific Islanders do not have federal recognition of sovereignty. Asian Pacific Islanders are often not viewed as minorities and have struggled with recognition. The Asian population includes US-born and immigrant populations that are very diverse (e.g., Hmong) and are often lumped into the category of “Asian” without acknowledgment of how diverse these communities are.
During the plenary session following the breakout groups, four common themes emerged in the rapporteurs’ remarks: