initially be disruptive, and there will need to be a full understanding of that fact and a need to develop realistic expectations. As data are available and new areas emerge that are relevant to an SDI (for example, data science), it will be important to recruit talented experts in those areas who will continue to make the SDI useful and relevant. The committee also found that it was important to have highly trained and respected professionals who understood the technology.

Cooperation and Partnerships

Partnerships with state and federal agencies are essential for SDI implementation and for the long-term sustainability of an SDI. An SDI partnering plan can be successful if it is based on a common vision among its partners; there is much to be gained from multiagency cooperation on spatial data development. In the case of GEOSS, a voluntary intergovernmental framework has the potential to create a working global-scale spatial data infrastructure.


Australian National Audit Office. 2010. The Auditor-General Annual Report 2009-2010. Report No. 22 Available online at (Accessed June 8, 2011).

British Geological Survey, 2011. Annual Report of the British Geological Survey 2009-2010. Nottingham: UK. 80 pgs.

Friedl, L., and A. Donnellan. 2010. Earth Observations Missions Applications Workshop: Charge to Workshop and Overview of Needed Products and Outcomes. February 1-3. Available online at (Accessed June 9, 2011).

GEO (Group of Earth Observations). 2011. About GEO. Available online at (Accessed June 9, 2011).

Homer, C., C. Huang, L. Yang, B. Wylie, and M. Coan. 2004. Development of a 2001 National Landcover Database for the United States. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing 70(7):829-840.

Johnston, C.M., T.G. Dewald, T.R. Bondelid, B.B. Worstell, L.D. McKay, A. Rea, R.B. Moore, and J.L. Goodall. 2009. Evaluation of catchment delineation methods for the medium-resolution National Hydrography Dataset: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2009–5233, 88 p. Available online at (Accessed June 13, 2011).

Kelmelis, J.A. 2003. To The National Map and Beyond. Cartography and Geographic Information Science 30(2):185-198.

Kelmelis, J.A., M.L. DeMulder, C.E. Ogrosky, N.J. Van Driel, and B.J. Ryan. 2003. The National Map From Geography to Mapping and Back. Photogrammetric Engineering & Remote Sensing 69(10):1109-1118.

EU (European Union). 2010. Environment: Six member states face Court for failing to apply EU laws on their statute books. 3 June. Available online at (Accessed June 9, 2011).

The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001

Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement