new EC spatial data infrastructure directive, Infrastructure for Spatial Information in the European Community (INSPIRE), and serves on the council of an International Union of Geological Sciences commission. From 1997 to 1999, he was the project manager of a major European Union-funded project to create a European geoscience metadata service. Mr. Jackson has worked for BGS for over 35 years, initially on mineral assessment programs in the United Kingdom and overseas and later as a field geologist undertaking applied geologic mapping in the North-East England coalfield. Use of relational database and computer-aided design systems to handle the large borehole and mine plan datasets associated with these projects led to his appointment as the manager of the BGS Digital Map Implementation project in 1990. That was followed by responsibility for BGS Information Systems. During his career with BGS, he has also undertaken geoscience information systems consultancy in Canada, Australia, South America, and Europe. He was responsible for the development of the UK digital geologic map database and closely involved in designing the BGS program for 3D modeling. Mr. Jackson is a graduate of the University of Newcastle, UK.

JOHN A. KELMELIS is a professor in the School of International Affairs of Pennsylvania State University and an affiliate professor in the Department of Geography. Previously, Dr. Kelmelis served as senior counselor for Earth science in the office of the science and technology adviser to the secretary of state, where he provided policy advice to the White House, the Department of State, and other high-level government entities on geology, hydrology, biology, geography, and related sciences and technologies in establishing and executing U.S. foreign policy. He concurrently served as senior science adviser for international policy in the office of the director of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), where he served as principal staff adviser on incorporating science into international policy. Dr. Kelmelis has coordinated the USGS Global Change Research Program, directed the White House Scientific Assessment and Strategy Team, managed the U.S. Antarctic Mapping Program, and conducted research on many geographic scientific topics. From 1997 through 1999, he served as the chief scientist for geographic research at the USGS, where he provided research and guidance on infrastructure resources in the United States (such as drinking water, abandoned mine lands, urban hazards, and ecosystem restoration in South Florida, the Chesapeake Bay, and San Francisco) and international issues and research. From 1999 to 2004, he served as chief scientist for geography, providing scientific leadership for The National Map, land remote sensing, and geographic analysis and monitoring programs. He is active in professional societies, including the American Geographical Society and the Association of American Geographers. Dr. Kelmelis has provided scientific and technical leadership to various national and international committees, including the Planning Committee of the Global Dialogue on Emerging Science and Technology 2008 (in Africa), the U.S. African Command Transition Team, and the U.S. Department of State Working Group on Populations at



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