CORPS OF ENGINEERS
Water Resources Infrastructure

____________

DETERIORATION, INVESTMENT, OR DIVESTMENT?

Committee on U.S. Army Corps of Engineers
Water Resources Science, Engineering, and Planning

Water Science and Technology Board

Division on Earth and Life Studies

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL
OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS

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Committee on U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Water Resources Science, Engineering, and Planning Water Science and Technology Board Division on Earth and Life Studies THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS Washington, D.C. www.nap.edu

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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competenc- es and with regard for appropriate balance. This material is based upon work supported by the U.S. Army Corps of Engi- neers, Humphreys Engineer Center Support Activity under Contract No. W912HQ-09-C-0041. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommenda- tions expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not neces- sarily reflect the views of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Humphreys En- gineer Center Support Activity. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-26476-1 International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-26476-6 Additional copies of this report are available for sale from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; http://www.nap.edu/. Cover design: Anne Rogers, the National Academies Press. Copyright 2013 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America.

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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating so- ciety of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal gov- ernment on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the char- ter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its mem- bers, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advis- ing the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Insti- tute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Acade- my’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Func- tioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is adminis- tered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Re- search Council. www.national-academies.org

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COMMITTEE ON U.S. ARMY CORPS OF ENGINEERS WATER RESOURCES SCIENCE, ENGINEERING, AND PLANNING DAVID A. DZOMBAK, Chair, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania PATRICK A. ATKINS, ALCOA (ret.), Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania GREGORY B. BAECHER, University of Maryland, College Park LINDA K. BLUM, University of Virginia, Charlottesville ROBERT A. DALRYMPLE, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland MISGANAW DEMISSIE, Illinois State Water Survey, Champaign TERRANCE J. FULP, U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, Boulder City, Nevada LARRY A. LARSON, Association of State Floodplain Managers, Madison, Wisconsin DIANE M. MCKNIGHT, University of Colorado, Boulder J. WALTER MILON, University of Central Florida, Orlando A. DAN TARLOCK, Chicago-Kent College of Law, Chicago, Illinois PETER R. WILCOCK, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland NRC Staff JEFFREY JACOBS, Study Director SARAH E. BRENNAN, Program Assistant (thru February 15, 2013) v

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WATER SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY BOARD DONALD I. SIEGEL, Chair, Syracuse University, New York LISA M. ALVAREZ-COHEN, University of California, Berkeley EDWARD J. BOUWER, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland YU-PING CHIN, Ohio State University, Columbus M. SIOBHAN FENNESSY, Kenyon College, Gambier, Ohio BEN GRUMBLES, Clean Water America Alliance, Washington, D.C. GEORGE R. HALLBERG, The Cadmus Group, Watertown, Massachusetts KENNETH R. HERD, Southwest Florida Water Management District, Brooksville GEORGE M. HORNBERGER, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee CATHERINE L. KLING, Iowa State University, Ames DEBRA S. KNOPMAN, The RAND Corporation, Arlington, Virginia LARRY A. LARSON, Association of State Floodplain Managers, Madison, Wisconsin RITA P. MAGUIRE, Maguire and Pearce, PLLC, Phoenix, Arizona DAVID H. MOREAU, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill ROBERT SIMONDS, The Robert Simonds Company, Los Angeles, California FRANK H. STILLINGER, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey MARYLYNN V. YATES, University of California, Riverside JAMES W. ZIGLAR, Van Ness Feldman, Washington, D.C. NRC Staff JEFFREY JACOBS, Director LAURA J. EHLERS, Senior Staff Officer STEPHANIE E. JOHNSON, Senior Staff Officer LAURA J. HELSABECK, Staff Officer M. JEANNE AQUILINO, Financial and Administrative Associate ANITA A. HALL, Senior Program Associate MICHAEL STOEVER, Research Associate SARAH E. BRENNAN, Senior Program Assistant vi

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Acknowledgments This report was authored by the National Research Council Committee on U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Water Resources Science, Engineering, and Planning. A draft version of the committee’s report was reviewed by indi- viduals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise in ac- cordance with the procedures approved by the NRC’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the NRC in making its published re- port as sound as possible, and to ensure that the report meets NRC institu- tional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their reviews of this re- port: John J. Boland, Johns Hopkins University; Adrian Chamberlain, con- sultant, Stephen W. Fuller, Texas A&M University; Jerome B. Gilbert, con- sultant; David Goldston, Natural Resources Defense Council; Allen W. Marr, Jr., Geocomp Corporation; Doug Plasencia, Michael Baker, Jr. Inc.; Leonard A. Shabman, Resources for the Future; Robert R. Twilley, Louisiana State University; and James W. Ziglar, Van Ness Feldman. Although these reviewers provided constructive comments and sugges- tions, they were not asked to endorse the report’s conclusions and recom- mendations, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Michael F. Goodchild, University of California, Santa Barbara, who was appointed by the National Research vii

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viii Acknowledgments Council. Dr. Goodchild was responsible for ensuring that an independent examination of this report was conducted in accordance with NRC institu- tional procedures and that all review comments received full consideration. This report was being coordinated by Dr. Leo Eisel, who passed away during the review process. Leo was a widely regarded, highly respected member of the U.S. water policy and science community. Leo served with distinction on several Water Science and Technology Board committees, and also was a valued Coordinator for many NRC reports. Leo’s friendly man- ner and superb judgment made him a favorite of the NRC staff, and he leaves behind a countless number of friends and many good memories. Responsibility for this report’s final contents rests entirely with the au- thoring committee and the NRC.

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Contents SUMMARY ........................................................................................................ 1 1 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................. 12 2 U.S. FEDERAL WATER PROJECT PLANNING, AUTHORIZA- TION, AND APPROPRIATIONS ........................................................ 19 Corps of Engineers Authorities, 21 Shifting Emphasis of Corps Activities, 23 The Corps of Engineers and the WRDA Process, 25 WRDA and Water Resources Infrastructure Operations, Maintenance, and Rehabilitation, 28 3 CORPS OF ENGINEERS WATER RESOURCES INFRASTRUC- TURE AND MISSION AREAS ............................................................. 33 Navigation, 35 Flood Risk Management, 59 Hydropower Generation, 72 Sustaining Corps of Engineers Water Resources Infrastructure, 79 4 OPTIONS FOR IMPROVING OPERATIONS, MAINTENANCE AND REHABILITATION OF CORPS OF ENGINEERS WATER RESOURCES INFRASTRUCTURE ...................................... 84 ix

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x Contents Options for Corps Water Resources Infrastructure, 85 The Need for Federal Leadership and Action, 91 REFERENCES................................................................................................... 95 APPENDIXES A GUEST SPEAKERS AT COMMITTEE MEETINGS ......................... 101 B BIOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION: Committee on U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Water Resources Science, Engineering, and Planning……………………………………………………………… .. 105