Monitoring Progress
Toward Successful
K-12 STEM Education

A NATION ADVANCING?

Committee on the Evaluation Framework for Successful K-12 STEM Education

Board on Science Education and Board on Testing and Assessment

Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL
                   OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS

Washington, D.C.

www.nap.edu



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Monitoring Progress Toward Successful K-12 STEM Education A Nation Advancing? Committee on the Evaluation Framework for Successful K-12 STEM Education Board on Science Education and Board on Testing and Assessment Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education The National Academies Press Washington, D.C. www.nap.edu R02309 Monitoring K–12 STEM Ed-PRF3.indd 1 3/13/13 2:04 PM

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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS • 500 Fifth Street, NW • Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This study was supported by Grant Nos. DRL-1233221 and DRL-1247500 between the National Academy of Sciences and the National Science Foundation. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-26481-5 International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-26481-2 Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; http://www.nap.edu. Copyright 2013 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America Suggested citation: National Research Council. (2013). Monitoring progress toward successful K-12 STEM education: A nation advancing? Committee on the Evaluation Framework for Successful K-12 STEM Education. Board on Science Education and Board on Testing and Assessment, Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. ii R02309 Monitoring K–12 STEM Ed-PRF3.indd 2 3/13/13 2:04 PM

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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distin- guished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autono- mous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering com- munities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org iii R02309 Monitoring K–12 STEM Ed-PRF3.indd 3 3/13/13 2:04 PM

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COMMITTEE ON THE EVALUATION FRAMEWORK FOR SUCCESSFUL K-12 STEM EDUCATION Adam Gamoran (Chair), Department of Sociology and Wisconsin Center for Education Research, University of Wisconsin–Madison RENA DORPH, The Research Group, The Lawrence Hall of Science; University of California, Berkeley MARK DYNARSKI, Pemberton Research, LLC, East Windsor, New Jersey DAVID FRANCIS, Department of Psychology, University of Houston SHARON LEWIS, Council of the Great City Schools, Detroit, Michigan BARBARA MEANS, Center for Technology in Learning, SRI International, Menlo Park, California MEREDITH PHILLIPS, School of Public Affairs, University of California, Los Angeles WILLIAM SCHMIDT, Departments of Statistics and Education, and the Education Policy Center, Michigan State University THOMAS SMITH, Peabody College of Education and Human Development, Vanderbilt University RUTH LÓPEZ TURLEY, Department of Sociology, Rice University SUZANNE WILSON, Department of Teacher Education, Michigan State University NATALIE NIELSEN, Study Director STUART W. ELLIOTT, Senior Staff Officer MARTIN STORKSDIECK, Senior Staff Officer REBECCA KRONE, Program Associate iv R02309 Monitoring K–12 STEM Ed-PRF3.indd 4 3/13/13 2:04 PM

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Contents Executive Summary 1 Introduction 4 Foundation for This Study 6 Study Overview 8 S cope of the Study 8 S tudy Approach and Sources of Evidence 10 Indicators for Measuring Improvements to the U.S. K-12 STEM Education System 12 M ultiple Models of STEM-Focused Schools 13 A dequate Instructional Time and Resources for Science in Grades K-5 15 F ocused, Rigorous, and Sequenced Curricula 17 Enhanced Capacity of K-12 Teachers 21 Professional Development for Instructional Leaders 25 Elevated Status for Science 26 Effective Systems of Assessment 28 Federal and State Support for STEM Teachers 29 Research to Enhance Understanding of STEM Schools, Practices, and Outcomes 31 Creating a Monitoring and Reporting System for K-12 STEM Education 33 C haracteristics and Capabilities 34 P lan for Implementation 35 Conclusion 43 References 44 Appendix: Summary of Relevant Surveys Administered by the U.S. Department of Education 50 Acknowledgments 54 v R02309 Monitoring K–12 STEM Ed-PRF3.indd 5 3/13/13 2:04 PM

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