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References Abou-Donia, M.B., and S.H. Preissig. 1976a. Delayed neurotoaccity of lepto- phos: Toxic effects on the nervous system of hens. Toxicol. Appl. Pharma- col. 35:269-282. Abou-Donia, M.B., and S.H. Preissig. 1976b. Delayed neurotoxicity from continuous low-dose oral administration of leptophos to hens. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 38:595-608. Abou-Donia, M.B., M^. Othman, A.Z. Khalil, G. Tantawy, and M.F. Shawer. 1974. Neurotomc effect of leptophos. Experientia 30:63-64. Ainley, D.G., and RJ. Bockelheide. 1990. Seabirds of the Farallon Islands: Ecology and Dynamics of an Upwelling-System Community. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press. Ames, R.G., S.K. Brown, J. Rosenberg, RJ. Jackson, J.W. Stratton, and S.G. Quenon. 1989. Health symptoms and occupational exposure to flea con- trol products among California pet handlers. Am. Ind. Hyg. Assoc. J. 50:466-472. Anas, R.E. 1974a. DDT plus PCBs in blubber of harbor seals. Pest. Moni- tor. J. 8:12-14. Anas, R.E. 1974b. Heavy metals in northern fur seal (Callhorhinus ursinus) and harbor seal (`Phoca vitulina nchardi). Fish Bull. 72:133-137. Anas, R.E. and AJ. Wilson, Jr. 1970a. Organochlorine pesticides in fur seals. Pest. Monitor. J. 3:198-200. Anas, R.E. and A.J. Wilson, Jr. 1970b. Organochlorine pesticides in nursing fur seal pups. Pest. Monitor. J. 4:11~116. Andersen, M.E. 1987. Tissue dossimetry in risk assessment, or what's the problem here, anyway? Pp. 8-23 in Drinking Water and Health, Vol. 8: Pharmacokinetics in Risk Assessment. Washington, D.C.: National Acade- my Press. Anderson, D.W., J.R. Jehl, Jr., R.W. Risebrough, ~ ^. Woods, Jr., L.R. De- weese, end W.G. Edgecomb. 1975. Brown pelicans: Improvedreproduc- tion off the Southern California Coast. Science 190:806-808. 137

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138 ANIMALS AS SENTINELS Anderson, H^. 1985. Evolution of environmental epidemiologic risk assess- ment. Environ. Health Perspect. 62:389-392. Arthur, R.D., J.D. Cain, and B.F. Barrentine. 1975. The effect of atmospher- ic levels of pesticides on pesticide residues In rabbit adipose tissue and sera. Bull. Environ. Contam. To~col. 14:760-764. Ash, C.P., and D.L. Lee. 1980. Lead, cadmium, cooper and iron in earth- worms from roadside sites. Environ. Pollut. Ser. A 22:59-67. Aulerich, RJ., ant! R.K. Ringer. 1977. Current status of PCB toxicity to mink, and effect on their reproduction. Arch. Environ. Contam. Topical. 6:279-292. Aulerich, RJ., R.K. Ringer, and S. Iwamoto. 1973. Reproductive failure and mortality in mink fed on Great Lakes fish. J. Reprod. Fert. Suppl. 19:365. Bailey, W.S., and A.H. Groth, Jr. 1959. The relationship of hepatitis 'X' of dogs and moldy corn poisoning of swine. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 134:51 516. Barker, G.M. 1982. Short-term effects of methiocarb formulations on pasture earthworms (OIigoc1~aeta.Lumbricidae). N.Z. J. Exp. Agric. 10:309-311. Barndt, G., and B. Bohn. 1985. Hiffen zur biologischen und chemischen gutebestimmung van fliessge wassern, W.D. Schroeer, ed. West Berlin: Paedagogisches Zentrum. Berlin. 28 pp. Becker, D.S. T.C. Ginn, M.L. Landolt, and D.B. Powell. 1987. Hepatic le- sions in English sole (~Paroph~ys vetulus) from Commencement Bay, Wash- ington (USA). Mar. Environ. Res. 23:153-173. Bell, W.B. 1952. The production of hyperkeratosis by the administration of a lubricant. Va. J. Sci. 3:71-78. BelIrose, F.C. 1959. Lead poisoning as a mortality factor in waterfowl popu- lations. Ill. Nat. Hist. Surv. Bull. 27:235-288. Bergman, H.L., R^. KimerIe, and A.W. Maki, eds. 1985. Environmental Hazard Assessment of Effluents. Elmsford, New York: Pergamon Press. Bishopp, F.C. 1946. Present position of DDT in the control of insects of medical importance. Am. J. Public Health 36:593-606. Blakemore, F., TJ. Bosworth, and H.H. Green. 1948. Industrial fluorosis of farm animals in England, attributable to the manufacture of bricks, the calcining of ironstone, and the enameling process. J. Comp. Path. 58:267- 301. Blandford, T.B., PJ. Seamon, R. Hughes, M. Pattison, and M.P. Wilderspin. 1975. A case of polytetrafluoroethylene poisoning in cockatiels accompa- --D ~ ~ ~--~ -----D r nied by polymer fume fever in the owner. Vet. Rec. 96:175-178. Thus, L.J., C.D. Gish, A^. Belisle, and R.M. Prouty. 1972. Logarithmic relationship of DDE residues to eggshell thinning. Nature 235:376-377. Bogan, J^., and I. Newton. 1979. The effects of organochlorines on repro-

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REFERENCES 139 auction of British Sparrowhawks (Accipiter nisusJ. Pp. 269-279 in Animals as Monitors of Environmental Pollutants. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. Bonaccorsi, A., A. di-Domenico, R. Fanelli, F. Merli, R. Motta, R. Vanzah, and G-A. Zapponi. 1984. The influence of soil particle adsorption on 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin biological uptake In the rabbit. Arch. Toxicol. Suppl. 7:431-434. Borg, K., P.H. Wanutorp, K. Erne, and E. Hanko. 1969. Alkyl mercury poi- soning in terrestrial Swedish Wildlife. Viltrevy 6:301-376. Boyar, A.P., D.P. Rose, J.R. Loughridge, A. Engle, A. Palgi, K. Laakso, D. Kinne, and E.L. Wynder. 1988. Response to a diet low in total fat in women with postmenopausal breast cancer: A pilot study. Nutr. Canc~er 11:93-99. Brackenbury, J.H. 1981. Ventilation of the lung-air sac system. Pp. 39-70 in Bird Respiration, Vol. 1., TJ. Seller, ed. Boca Raton, Fla.: CRC Press. Bromenshenk, JJ., S.R. Carlson, J.C. Simpson, and J.M. Thomas. 1985. Pollution monitoring of Puget Sound with honey bees. Science 227:632-634. Brown, E.R., E. Koch, T.F. Sinclair, R. Spitzer, O. Callaghan, and JJ. Haz~ra. 1979. Water pollution and diseases in fish: An epizootiologic survey. J. Environ. Pathol. Toxicol. 2:917-926. Brown, R.J. 1987. 1985-1986 Report of the Interagency Ecological Studies Program for the Sacramento-San Joaquin Estuary. Fish and Wildlife Ref- erence Sermce MIN 0413740118. 165pp. Buck, W.B. 1979. Animals as monitors of environmental quality. Vet. Hum. Toxicol. 21:277-284. Bunck, C.M., R.M. Prouty, and A.J. Krynitsky. 1987. Residues of organo- chlorine pesticides and polychlorobiphenyls in starling (`Stumus vulgans) from the continental United States, 1982. Env~ron. Monit. Assess. 8~1~:59- 75. Burnham, L. 1981. DaphniaMag''a-bioassay species. M.S. thesis. Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colo. Burnham, W^., W. Heinrich, C. Sandfort, E. Lev~ne, D. O'Brien, and D. Konkel. 1988. Recovery effort for the peregrine falcon in the Rocly Mountains. Pp. 565-574 in Peregrine Falcon Populations: Their Manage- ment and Recovery, T.J. Cade, J.H. Enderson, C.G. Thelander, and C.M. White, eds. Boise, Idaho: The Peregrine Fund. Burrell, G^., and F.M. Seibert. 1916. Gases Found in Coal Mines. Miners' Circular 14, Bureau of Mines. Washington, D.C.: Department of the Inte- r~or. Butler, P^. 1973. Organochlorine residues in estuarine mollusks, 1965-1972: National Pesticide Monitoring Program. Pestic. Monit. J. 6:238-362.

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140 ANIMALS AS SENTINELS Cage, TJ., J.H. Enderson, C.G. Thelander, and C.M. White, eds. 1988. Peregrine Falcon Populations: Their Management and Recovery. Boise, Idaho: The Peregrine Fund. Calambokidis, J., J. Peard, G.H. Steiger, J.C. Cubbage, and R.L. DeLong. 1984. Chemical contaminants in marine mammals from Washington State. NOAA Technical Memorandum NOS OMS 6. 87pp. Calambokidis, J., S. Speich, J. Peard, G.H. Steiger, J.C. Cubbage, D.M. Frye, and LJ. Lowenstine. 1985. Biology of Puget Sound marine mammals and marine birds: Population health and evidence of pollution effects. NOAA Technical Memorandum. Rockville, Md.: National Oceanic and Atmo- spheric Administration. l59pp. Cameron, T. 1988. Feral fish populations as indicators of environmental contamination. Presented at the Workshop of the Committee on Animals as Monitors of Environmental Hazards, Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology, National Academy of Sciences, May 9-10, 19~. Carson, R. 1962. Silent Spring. New York: Houghton Mifflin. Carter, C.D., R.D. Kimbrough, J^. Liddle, R.E. Cline, M.M. Zack, Jr., W.F. Barthel, R.E. Koehler, and P.E. Phillips. 1975. Tetrachlorodibenzodio~n: An accidental poisoning episode in horse arenas. Science 188:738-740. Case,A^., end J.R. Coffman. 1973. Waste oil: Toxic for horses. Vet. Clin. North Am. 3:273-277. Chlebowsk;, R.T., D.W. Nixon, G.L. Blackburn, P. Jochimsen, E.F. Scanlon, W. Insull, Jr., I.M. Buzard, R. Elashoff, R. Butrum, and E.L. Wynder. 1987. A breast cancer Nutrition Adjuvant Study (NAS): Protocol design and initial patient adherence. Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 10:21-29. Clark, O.R., Jr. 1979. Lead concentrations: Bats vs. terrestrial small mam- mals collected near a major highway. Environ. Sci. Technol. 13:338-341. Clark, D.R., Jr., F.M. Bagley, and W.W. Johnson. 1988. Northern Alabama colonies of the endangered gray bat myotis-grisescens organochlorine con- tamination and mortality. Biol. Conserv. 43:213-226. CIark, T., K. Clark, S. Paterson, D. MacKay, and R.J. Norstrom. 1988. Wild- life monitoring, modeling, and fugacity. Environ. Sci. Technol. 22:120-127. Coon, R^., R^. Jones, L.J. Jenkins, and J. Siegel. 1970. Animal inhalation studies on ammonia, ethylene glycol, formaldehyde, dimethylamine, and ethanol. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 16:646-655. Cothern, C.R. 1989. Some scientif~c judgments in the assessment of the risk of environmental contaminants. Toxicol. Indust. Health 5:479-491. Couch, J^. 1984. Histopathology and enlargement of the pituitary of a telost exposed to the herbicide trifluralin. J. Fish Dis. 7:157-163. Couch, J^.,and J.C. Harshbarger. 1985. Effects of carcinogenic agents on aquatic animals: An environmental and experimental overview. Environ. Carcinog. Rev. 3:63-105.

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REFERENCES 141 Couch, J^., J.T. Winstead, and L.R. Goodman. 1977. Kepone-induced scoli- osis and its histological consequences in fish. Science 197:585-587. Couch, J^., J.T. Winstead, D.J. Hansen, and L.R. Goodman. 1979. Verte- bral dysplasia in young fish exposed to the herbicide trifluralin. J. Fish Dis. 2:35-42. Curtis, T. 1976. Danger: Men working. Tex. Mon. May:129-140. Cutler, S.J., and J.C. Young, Jr., eds. 1975. Third National Cancer Survey: Incidence Data, 1975, Monograph 41. Washington, D.C: U.S. Government Printing Office. Davidson, I.W., J.C. Parker, and R.P. Beliles. 1986. Biological basis for extrapolation across mammalian species. Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 6:211- 237. Davies, P.H., and J.D. Woodling. 1980. Importance of laboratory-derived metal toxicity results in predicting in-stream response of resident salmonids. Pp. 281-99 in Aquatic Toxicology: Proceedings of the Third Annual Sym- posium on Aquatic Toxicology, New Orleans, La., October 17-18, 1978, J.G. Eaton, P.R. Parrish, and A.C. Hendricks, eds. ASTM STP 707. Philadel- phia, Pa.: American Society for Testing and Materials. Deutsch Norm. 1986. Biologisch-oekologische gewaesseruntuntersuchung (Gruppe M) (Biological-ecological examination of waters (Group M) Pro- posal for German Standard DIN 38410, Part 1. Deutsches Institut Fuer Normung. Berlin 30, Germany. Dobson, R.L., and J.S. Felton. 1983. Female germ cell loss from radiation anc! chemical exposures. Am. J. Ind. Med. 4:175-190. DOI (Department of the Interior). 1976. Use of Steel Shot for Hunting Waterfowl in the United States. Final Environmental Statement. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of the Interior. 276 pp. DOI (Department of the Interior). 1987. Injury to Fish end wildlife. CER- CLA 301 Project Report. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of the Interior. Donham, K.J., and J.R. Leininger. 1984. Animal studies of potential chronic lung disease of workers in swine confinement buildings. Am. J. Vet. Res. 45:926-931. Dorn, C.R., D.N. Reddy, J.V. Lamphere, and R. Lanese. 1985. Municipal sewage sludge application on Ohio Farms: Health effects. Environ. Res. 38:332-359. Edwards, C^. 1983. Development of a standardized laboratory method for assessing the toxicity of chemical substances to earthworms. Commission of the European Communities, Directorate-General, Information Market and Innovation, Batiment Jean Monnet, Luxembourg. No. EUR 8714 EN.

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142 ANIMALS AS SENTINELS Edwards, Cot., and A.R. Thompson. 1973. Pesticides and the soil fauna. Residue Rev. 45:1-79. EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency3. 1972. Water Quality Criteria 1972: Ecological Research Series. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. EPA (U.S. Enviornmental Protection Agency). 1976. Criteria Document: DDT (000, DDE). Office of Water Planning and Standards. NTIS No. PB-25~014. Springfield, Va.: National Technical Information Service. EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1983. PCBs In Humans Shows Decrease. EPA Environmental News, press release for Monday, May 9, 1983. Washington, D.C.: Office of Public Affairs, U.S. Env~ron- mental Protection Agency. 6 pp. EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1987. The National Dioxin Study Tiers3,4,5 and7. EPA440/4-87-003. Washington, D.C.: Office of Water Regulation and Standards, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Ernst, M.C. 1987. PCBs in sediment and fish liver. Pp. 46-57 in National Status and Trends Program Progress Report, Office of Oceanography and Marine Assessment, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Rockville, Md. Fairbrother, A., and J. Fowles. In press. Subchronic effects of sodium sele- nite and selenomethionine on immune functions of the mallard. Arch. Environ. To~ncol. Chem. Fanelli, R., M.G. Castelli, A. Noseda, G.P. Martelli, and S. Garattini. 1980. Presence of 2,3,7,8-tetrachIorodibenzo-p-dioxin in wildlife living near Seve- so, Italy: A preliminary stucly. Bull. Environ. Contam. Topical. 24:460-462. Farrington, J.W., E.D. Goldberg, R.W. Risebrough, J.H. MartiIl, en cl V.T. Bowen. 1983. U.S. "Mussel Watch" 1976-1978: An overwew of the trace- metal, DDE, PCB, hydrocarbon, and artificial radionuclide data. Environ. Sci. Technol. 17:490-496. FDA (Food and Drug Administration). 1987. Environmental assessment technical assistance handbook. NTIS No. PB87-175345. Springfield, Va.: National Technical Information Service. Firestone, D. 1973. Etiology of chick edema disease. Environ. Health Per- spect. 5:59-66. Fitzpatrick, L.C., B.J. Venables, AJ. Goven, and E.L. Cooper. 1990. Earth- worm immunoassays for evaluating biological effects of exposure to hazard- ous chemicals. Proceedings from EPA Symposium fin Situ Evaluation of Biological Pollutants". Foran, J^., M. Cox, and D. Croxton. 1989. Sport fish consumption adv~so- ries and projected cancer risks in the Great Lakes Basin. Am. J. Public Health 79:322-325. Fox, G^. and D.V. Weseloh. 1987. Colonial waterbirds as big-indicators of

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REFERENCES 143 environmental contamination in the Great Lakes. ICBP Technical Publica- tion No. 6. Friedman, L., F. Firestone, W. Horwitz, D Banes, M. Anstead, and G. Shue. 1959. Studies of the chicken edema disease factor. J. Assoc. Off. Agric. Chem. 42:129-140. Fyfe, R.W., R.W. Risebrough, J.G. Monk, W.M. Jarman, D.W. Anderson, L.F. Kiff, J.L. Lincer, I.C.T. Nisbet, W. Walker, II., and BJ. Walton. 1988. DDE, productivity, and eggshell thickness relationships in the Genus Falco. Pp. 319-336 in Peregrine Falcon Populations: Their Management and Recovery, TJ. Cade, J.H. Enderson, C.G. Thelander, and C.M. White, eds. Boise, Idaho: The Peregrine Fund. Gardner, G.R., and R.J. Pruell. 1988. A histopathological and chemical assessment of winter flounder, lobster and soft-shelled clam indigenous to Quincy Bay, Boston Harbor and an in situ evaluation of oysters including sediment (surface and cores) chemistry. ERL, USEPA, Narragansett, R.I. 82 pp. plus appendices~unnumbered). Gardner, H.S., W.H. van der Schalie, M.J. Wolfe, and R^. Finch. In press. New Methods for On-Site Biological Monitoring of Effluent Water Quality. New York and London: Plenum Press. Gateff, E. 1978. Malignant neoplasms of genetic origin in Drosophila melan- ogaster. Science 200:1448-1459. Gateff, E., and H^. Schneiderman. 1969. Neoplasms in mutant and cultured wild type tissues of Drosophila. Neoplasms and related disorders of inver- tebrate and lower vertebrate animals. Nat. Cancer Inst. Monogr. 31:365- 398. Gish, C.D., and R.E. Christensen. 1973. Cadmium, nickel, lead, and zinc ;n earthworms from roadside soil. Environ. Sci. Technol. 7:1060-1062. Glickman, L.T., L.M. Domanski, T.G. Maguire, R.R. Dubielzig, and A. Churg. 1983. Mesothelioma in pet dogs associated with exposure of their owners to asbestos. Env~ron. Res. 32:305-313. Glickman, L.T., F.S. Schofer, L.J. McKee, J.S. Reif, and M.H. Goldschmidt. 1989. Epidemiologic stll~y of insecticide exposures, obesity, and risk of bladder cancer in household dogs. J. Toxicol. Environ. Health 28:407-414. Goldblatt, LA. 1969. Implications of mycotomns. Clin. Toxicol. 5:623-630. Goldsmith, C.D., Jr., and P.F. Scanion. 1977. Lead levels in small mammals and selected invertebrates associated with highways of different traffic densities. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 17:311-316. Gordon, M. 1931. Morphology of the heritable color patterns in the Mexican killifish, Platypoecilus. Am. J. Cancer 15:732-787. Granoff, A. 1973. The Lucke renal carcinoma of the frog. Pp. 627-640 in The Herpesviruses, A.S. Kaplan, ed. New York and London: Academic Press.

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144 ANIMALS AS SENTINELS Grier, J.W. 1982. Ban of DDT and subsequent recovery of reproduction in bald eagles. Science 218:1232-1235. Grier, J.W., P.R. Spitzer, C.R. Sindelar, Jr., and R.W. Risebrough. 1977. Eggshell thickness: Pollutant relationships among North American ospreys. Tans. N. Am. Osprey Res. Conf. U.S. NatI. Park Serv. Trans. Proc. Ser. No. 2:13-19. Grizzle, J.M., Ski. Horowitz, and D.R. Strength. 1988. Caged fish as moni- tors of pollution: Effects of chlorinated effluent from a wastewater treat- ment plant. Water Resour. Bull. 24:951-959. Grue, C.E., W3. Fleming, D.G. Busby, and E.F. Hill. 1983. Assessing haz- ards of organophosphate pesticides to wildlife. Trans. N. Am. Wildlife Nat. Res. Conf. 48:200-220. Grue, C.E., T.J. O'Shea, and D.J. Hoffman. 1984. Lead concentrations and reproduction in highway-nesting barn swallows. Condor 86:383-389. Haeussler, G. 1928. Uber Melanombildungen bei Bastarden von Xiphophor- us helleri und Platypoecilus maculatus var. rubra. Klin Wochenschr 7:1561- 1562. Halver, J.E. 1965. Aflatoxicosis and rainbow trout hepatoma. Pp. 209-234 in Mycotoxins in Foodstuffs, G.N. Wogan, ed. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press. Hammond, P.B., ancl A.L. Aronson. 1964. Lead poisoning in cattle and horses in the vicinity of a smelter. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 111:595-611. Haring, C.M., and K.F. Meyer. 1915. Investigations of livestock conditions w~th horses in the Selby smoke zone. Calif. Hurrau Mines Bull. 98. Harshbarger, J.C., and J.B. Clark. 1990. Epizootiology of neoplasms in bony fish from North America. Sci. Total Environ. 94:1-32. Hawley, J.K. 1985. Assessment of health risk from exposure to contaminated soil. Risk Anal. 5:289-302. Hayes, H.M., Jr., R. Hoover, and R.E. Tarone. 1981. Bladder cancer in pet ~dogs: A sentinel for environmental cancer? Am. J. Epidemiol. 114:229- 233. Hayes, H.M., R.E. Tarone, H.W. Casey, and D.L. Huxsoll. 1990. Excess of seminomas observed in Vietnam service U.S. military working dogs. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 82:1042-1046. Heasly, P., S. Pultz, and R. Batiuk. 1989. Chesapeake Bay Basin Monitoring Program Atlas. Vols. I & II. Water Quality and Other Physicochemical Monitoring Programs & Biological and Living Resource Monitoring Pro- grams. USEPA CBP/TRS 35/89. 733pp. Heida, H. K. Olie, and E. Prins. 1986. Selective accumulation of chloroben- zenes, polychlorinated dibenzofurans and 2,3,7,8-TCDD in wildlife of the volgermeerpolder, Amsterdam, Holland. Chemosphere 15:1995-2000.

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REFERENCES 145 Heinz, G.H., DJ. Hoffman, AJ. Krynitsky, and D.M.G. Weller. 1987. Re- production in mallards fed selenium. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 6:423-433. Heinz, G.H., DJ. Hoffman, and L.G. Gold. -1988. Toxicity of organic and inorganic selenium to mallard ducklings. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 17:561-568. Henderson, C., W.L. Johnson, and A. Inglis. 1969. Organochlorine ~nsecti- cide residues In fish: National Pesticide Monitoring Program. Pestic. Monit. J. 3:145-171. Henderson, C., A. Inglis, and W.L. Johnson. 1971. Organochlroine insecti- cide residues in fish, Fall 1969: National Pesticide Monitoring Program. Pestic. Monit. J. 5:1-11. Henderson, C., A. Inglis, and W.L. Johnson. 1972. Mercury residues in fish, 1969-1970: National Pesticide Monitoring Program. Pestic. Monit. J. 6:144-159. Hesseltine, C.W. 1967. Aflato~n and other mycotoxins. Health Lab. Sci. 4:222-228. Hickey, J.J., Jr. 1968. Peregrine Falcon Populations, Their Biology and De- cline. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press. Hodgson, M.E., J.R. Jensen, H.E. Mackey, Jr., and M.C. Coulter. 1988. Monitoring wood stork foraging habitat using remote sensing and geo- graphic information systems. Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sens. 54:1601- 1607. Hoffman, DJ., BA. Rattner, and R.J. Hall. 1990. Wildlife Toxicology. Environ. Sci. Technol. 24:276-283. Holm, L-E., E. Callmer, M-L. Hjalmar, E. Lidbrink, B. Nilsson, Le Skoog. 1989. Dietary habits and prognostic factors in breast cancer. J. NatI. Can- cer Inst. 81:1218-1223. Holm, L.W., J.D. Wheat, E^. Rhode, and G. Firch. 1953. Treatment of chronic lead poisoning in horses w~th calcium disodium ethylenediamine- tetraacetate. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 123:383-388. Hornshaw, T.C., RJ. Aulerich, and H.E. Johnson. 1983. Feeding Great Lakes fish to mink: Effects on mink and accumulation and elimination of PCBs by mink. J. Toxicol. EnYiron. Health 11:933-946. Humphrey, H.E.B. 1976. Evaluation of changes of the level of polychlori- nated biphenyls (PCB) in human tissue. Final report on U.S. FDA con- tract. Michigan Department of Public Health, Lansing, Mich. 86 pp. Hunter, D., and D. Russell. 1954. Focal cerebral and cerebellar atrophy in a human subject due to organic mercury compounds. J. Neurol. Neuro- surg. Psychiatry 17:235-241. Hutton, M., and G.T. Goodman. 1980. Metal contamination of feral pigeons Columba livia from the London area: Part I - Tissue accumulation of lead, cadmium and zinc. Environ. Pollut. Ser. A 22:207-217.

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146 ANIMALS AS SENTINELS Jackson, KJ. 1960. A field experiment to determine the effect upon Coho Salmon Fry (`Orlcorhynchus kisutch) from spraying sawlogs with an emulsi- fied mixture of benzene hexachloride. Cancer Fish Cult. 27:33-42. Jackson, T.F., and F.L. Halbert. 1974. A toxic syndrome associated with the feeding of polybrominated byphenyl-contaminated protein concentrate to dairy cattle. J. Am. Vet. Meal. Assoc. 165:437-439. Jager, K.W. 1970. Al drin, D ieldrin, En drin and Telodrin : An Epidemiologi- cal and Toxicological Study of Long-Term Occupational Exposure. New York: Elsev~er. Jensen, S. 1966. Report of a new chemical hazard. New Sci. 32:612. Johnston, R.K, and R. Kendall. 1990. Synopsis of toxicology demonstration project at NAS Whidbey Island, Wa. Johnston, R.K., WJ. Wild, Jr., K.E. Richter, D. Lapota, P.M. Stang, and T.H. Flor. 1988. Navy Aquatic Hazardous Waste Sites: The Problem and Possible Solutions. Paper presented at the 13th Annual Environmental Quality R&D Symposium, November 15-17, 1988, Williamsburg, Va. Kahrs, R.F. 1974. Basic epidemiology in confinement operations. Pp. 123- 125 in Proceedings of the 6th Annual Meeting, American Association Bo- vine Practitioners, West Lafayette, Ind. Kahrs, R.F. 1978. Techniques for investigating outbreaks of livestock disease. I. Am. Vete Med. Assoc. 173:101-103. Kelsey, J.L., W.D. Thompson, and A.S. Evans. 1986. Methods in Observa- tional Epidemiology. New York: Oxford University Press. 376 pp. Kendall, RJ. 1988. Wildlife toxicology: A reflection on the past and the challenge of the future (Editorial). Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 7:337-338. Kendall, RJ., J.M. Funsch, and C.M. Bens. 1990. The use of wildlife for on- site evaluation of bioavailability and ecotoxicity of toxic substances found in hazardous waste sites. In Situ Evaluations of Biological Hazards of Environmental Pollutants, S. Sandhu, ed. New York: Plenum Press. Kenk, R. 1976. Freshwater triclads (Turbellana) of North America. IV. The polypharyngeal species of Phagocata. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press. Kimerle, Rot., A.F. Werner, and WJ. Adams. 1986. Aquatic Hazard Evalua- tion Principles Applied to the Development of Water Quality Criteria, R.D. Cardwell, R. Purdy, and R.C. Bahner, eds. Philadelphia, Pa.: American Society for Testing and Materials. King, LJ. 1987. The National Animal Health Monitoring System: An UP date. Paper presented at the U.S. Animal Health Association Meeting, Raleigh, N.C., May 5, 1987. Koeman, J.H. 1972. Side effects of persistent pesticides and other chemicals on birds and mammals in The Netherlands. Side-Effects of Pesticides and

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