FIGURE 3-1 The iterative process of science-informed environmental decision-making and policy. The process starts with effective problem-formulation, which drives both the experimental design and the selection of data to be acquired. Modeling, synthesis, and analysis of the data are necessary to generate new knowledge. Only through effective translation and communication of new knowledge can science truly inform policies that can generate actions to improve public health and the environment. An evaluation of outcomes is an essential component in determining whether science-informed actions have been beneficial, and it, in turn, adds to the knowledge base.