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FIGURE 2.1 The Arctic system is made up of various components including a complex network of process interactions, interdependent feedbacks, and thresholds. There are many interconnections among system components and important changes in one component may influence numerous other parts of the system, including sea ice. SOURCE: Adapted from the Study of Environmental Arctic Change.

susceptible to summer melt (Perovich and Polashenski, 2012) but it is also likely to be more easily ridged, ruptured, and transported by winds (Rampal et al., 2009).The delay in the formation of shore-fast ice as well as its reduced stability and overall duration are also significant changes, with implications for stakeholders along the Arctic coast (Mahoney et al., 2007).

Some of the greatest changes to the Arctic Ocean are occurring in the Chukchi and Beaufort seas, where the increased summer ice retreat has created a substantially enlarged marginal ice zone (Holland and Stroeve, 2011). As a seasonal feature contained within the Arctic Basin,



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