dominated by first-year ice and as atmospheric circulation patterns potentially change in response to sea ice loss and other factors, the stratification of the upper-ocean layers could also change, modifying the amount of Atlantic and Pacific layer heat that affects the ice cover. Moreover, additional solar energy absorbed in areas where ice has retreated will also affect mixed-layer characteristics (Perovich et al., 2007). Owing in part to insufficient vertical resolution in modeled oceans, processes related to the mixed layer and stratification are not well captured by models. Additionally, lateral oceanic transports affecting, for example, the net heat flux from the North Atlantic into the Arctic Basin, are also often poorly simulated in current climate models.

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