Information is made available through various data management and information products (including a website and data portal), workshops and reports, and newsletters. AOOS also makes educational resources available for teachers and interested community members. The AOOS network includes mariners, fishermen and subsistence users, search and rescue operations, scientists, coastal security operations, resource managers, and educators.

A regional-scale example of a forum through which stakeholders work directly with scientists is the Alaska Center for Climate Assessment and Policy (ACCAPc). The goal is to enable Alaskans to be able to respond to climate changes by targeting products (e.g., National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration [NOAA] forecasts) to address specific user needs. Using tools such as webinars, video conferences, web-based guides and maps, and social media, ACCAP reaches out to encourage dialogue between scientists and end users. These resources help convey valuable information on climate change science as well as information on uncertainty and risk management. Strategies and plans to adapt to climate change are developed in coordination with stakeholders, agencies, industries, and citizens to ensure that partnerships are built and information needs are met. The ACCAP program is part of the NOAA Regional Integrated Sciences and Assessments (RISAd) program, which supports research on complex, interdisciplinary issues that are addressed at the regional level.


others. Even commonly used terms such as “multiyear” sea ice may have different meanings that need to be clearly communicated among the relevant stakeholders.

These ongoing efforts and suggested framework offer important building blocks to advance the strategy envisioned here. However, in the committee’s view this activity will likely not be effectively facilitated without a dedicated and deliberate effort backed by sufficient resources, including designated funding. For example, an NRC report noted that maintaining some networks developed and cultivated during IPY has been difficult and many of its valued components—such as the international IPY website, its publication database, and educational and outreach efforts—have struggled to find alternative resources (NRC, 2012a). The characteristics of these sustained conversations suggest leadership from a high-level, inter-governmental office, agency, or consortium.

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