National Summit on
Strategies to Manage
Herbicide-Resistant Weeds

PROCEEDINGS OF A WORKSHOP

Organized by the
Planning Committee for a National Summit on
Strategies to Manage Herbicide-Resistant Weeds

Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources

Division on Earth and Life Studies

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL
                         OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
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National Summit on Strategies to Manage Herbicide-Resistant Weeds PROCEEDINGS OF A WORKSHOP Organized by the Planning Committee for a National Summit on Strategies to Manage Herbicide-Resistant Weeds Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources Division on Earth and Life Studies

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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This study was funded by the Herbicide Resistance Action Committee, the Iowa Soybean Association, the National Cotton Council of America, the United Soybean Board, the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service; the U.S. Department of Agriculture, National Institute of Food and Agriculture; and the Weed Science Society of America. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-26556-0 International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-26556-8 Cover: Photos credits from top of the page: waterhemp, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service; wheat, U.S. Department of Agriculture; johnsongrass, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service (Barry Fitzgerald); sugarbeets, U.S. Department of Agriculture; farmer and corn, iStockphoto.com/Chris Fertnig; marestail, Ohio State University Extension; alfalfa, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. Additional copies of this report are available for sale from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; http://www.nap.edu/. Copyright 2012 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America.

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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org

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PLANNING COMMITTEE FOR A NATIONAL SUMMIT ON STRATEGIES TO MANAGE HERBICIDE-RESISTANT WEEDS CHARLES J. ARNTZEN (Chair), Arizona State University, Tempe HAROLD D. COBLE, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service DAVID E. ERVIN, Portland State University, Oregon JODIE S. HOLT, University of California, Riverside TERRANCE M. HURLEY, University of Minnesota, St. Paul RAYMOND A. JUSSAUME, JR., Michigan State University, East Lansing MICHEAL D. K. OWEN, Iowa State University, Ames JILL SCHROEDER, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces DAVID R. SHAW, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State Staff KARA N. LANEY, Program Officer RUTHIE S. ARIETI, Research Associate v

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BOARD ON AGRICULTURE AND NATURAL RESOURCES NORMAN R. SCOTT (Chair), Cornell University (Emeritus), Ithaca, New York PEGGY F. BARLETT, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia HAROLD L. BERGMAN, University of Wyoming, Laramie RICHARD A. DIXON, Samuel Roberts Noble Foundation, Ardmore, Oklahoma DANIEL M. DOOLEY, University of California, Oakland JOAN H. EISEMANN, North Carolina State University, Raleigh GARY F. HARTNELL, Monsanto Company, St. Louis, Missouri GENE HUGOSON, Global Initiatives for Food Systems Leadership, St. Paul, Minnesota MOLLY M. JAHN, University of Wisconsin, Madison ROBBIN S. JOHNSON, Cargill Foundation, Wayzata, Minnesota A.G. KAWAMURA, Solutions from the Land, Washington, DC KIRK C. KLASING, University of California, Davis JULIA L. KORNEGAY, North Carolina State University, Raleigh VICTOR L. LECHTENBERG, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana PHILIP E. NELSON, Purdue University (Emeritus), West Lafayette, Indiana KEITH PITTS, Marrone Bio Innovations, Davis, California CHARLES W. RICE, Kansas State University, Manhattan HAL SALWASSER, Oregon State University, Corvallis ROGER A. SEDJO, Resources for the Future, Washington, DC KATHLEEN SEGERSON, University of Connecticut, Storrs MERCEDES VZQUEZ-AN, Novus International, Inc., St. Charles, Missouri Staff ROBIN A. SCHOEN, Board Director EVONNE P. Y. TANG, Senior Program Officer CAMILLA YANDOC ABLES, Program Officer KARA N. LANEY, Program Officer PEGGY TSAI, Program Officer KAREN L. IMHOF, Administrative Coordinator JANET M. MULLIGAN, Senior Program Associate for Research RUTHIE S. ARIETI, Research Associate KATHLEEN REIMER, Senior Program Assistant vi

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Acknowledgments This proceedings has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council's Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making the published proceedings as sound as possible and to ensure that the proceedings meets institutional standards of objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following for their review of this proceedings: Stephen O. Duke, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, University, Mississippi David E. Ervin, Portland State University, Oregon Jerry Green, DuPont Ag Biotechnology/Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Newark, Delaware Raymond A. Jussaume, Jr., Michigan State University, East Lansing Nancy Ragsdale, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service (retired), Beltsville, Maryland Siyuan Tan, BASF Corporation, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina Alan Tasker, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Riverdale, Maryland Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they did not see the final draft of this proceedings before its release. The review of this proceedings was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and all review comments were carefully considered. The National Research Council would like to thank the generous sponsors of this project. Herbicide Resistance Action Committee Iowa Soybean Association National Cotton Council of America vii

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viii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS United Soybean Board U.S. Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service U.S. Department of Agriculture, National Institute of Food and Agriculture Weed Science Society of America

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Preface Preserving the efficacy of herbicides and of herbicide-resistance technology depends on awareness of the increasing resistance of weeds to herbicides used in agriculture and coordinated action to address the problem by individuals at the farm level and beyond. This summit served as a venue to bring the attention of important stakeholders to the issue and as an opportunity for experts from diverse disciplines to strategize in a coordinated way to address herbicide-resistant weeds. In convening stakeholders for this event, participants took a step toward a recommendation from the 2010 National Research Council report, The Impact of Genetically Engineered Crops on Farm Sustainability in the United States, that federal and state government agencies, private- sector technology developers, universities, farmer organizations, and other relevant stakeholders collaborate to document emerging weed-resistance problems and to develop cost-effective resistance-management programs and practices that preserve effective weed control. The summit provided the opportunity for stakeholders to explore the scientific basis of the emergence of herbicide resistance and to consider different perspectives on both opportunities and barriers to overcoming the problem of herbicide-resistant weeds. Summaries, presentation materials, and a video recording of the summit can be found at http://nas-sites.org/hr-weeds-summit/. This document contains a brief synopsis of key points made by each speaker at the summit. The National Research Council does not endorse the statements made by summit presenters. ix

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x PREFACE Horseweed (Marestail. Conyza canadensis; mature plant), courtesy of the Weed Science Society of America.

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Contents WELCOME .................................................................................................................................................................. 1 Charles J. Arntzen HERBICIDE RESISTANCE IN WEEDS: WHAT IS THE NATURE OF THE PROBLEM? .......... 3 Micheal D. K. Owen THE EPIDEMIOLOGY OF HERBICIDE RESISTANCE ............................................................................. 7 Jodie Holt THE AUSTRALIAN EXPERIENCE OF MANAGING HERBICIDE RESISTANCE AND ITS CONTRASTS WITH THE UNITED STATES ............................................................................................... 9 Michael Walsh BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES TO CONTROL AND COMBAT RESISTANCE .................... 11 David R. Shaw ADDRESSING THE PRESSING PROBLEM OF HERBICIDE RESISTANCE .................................. 15 Harold Coble PANEL 1: THE IMPEDIMENTS TO USING BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES Ben Barstow...............................................................................................................................................17 Chuck Farr...................................................................................................................................................18 David Miller ................................................................................................................................................19 Steve Reeves...............................................................................................................................................19 Dale Shaner.................................................................................................................................................20 xi

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xii CONTENTS A SOCIAL SCIENCE PERSPECTIVE ON WEED MANAGEMENT PRACTICES ............................ 21 George Frisvold PANEL 2: WHAT APPROACHES ARE MOST LIKELY TO ENCOURAGE THE ADOPTION OF BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES? Tom Green...................................................................................................................................................27 John Hamer.................................................................................................................................................28 John Soteres................................................................................................................................................30 Paul B. Thompson....................................................................................................................................31 Michael Walsh ...........................................................................................................................................36 THE LAND-GRANT APPROACH .................................................................................................................... 37 Steven Leath APPENDIXES ................................................................................................................................................................ A SUMMIT AGENDA................................................................................................................................. 39 B PLANNING COMMITTEE BIOGRAPHIES .................................................................................. 41 C SPEAKER BIOGRAPHIES .................................................................................................................. 47 D HERBICIDE CLASSIFICATIONS AND MECHANISMS OF ACTION.................................. 53